Antidepressant Drugs Scientific Resources

Antidepressant Drugs Resource Center 

This page makes available some key scientific publications on antidepressant drugs.  



(1) Antidepressants Cause or Worsen Activation (Over-stimulation) and Mania

In 2003/2004 (below), I wrote about the stimulant or activation syndrome of adverse drug reactions caused by SSRI antidepressants that are very dangerous and closely resemble amphetamine- and cocaine-like effects. The FDA then included this syndrome in its class warning for all antidepressants, including, for example, Zoloft where it states : “The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric” (below, pp. 12-13). The scientific literature confirms that this syndrome is very common in adults and even more common in children, afflicting up to 50%, and causes or contributes to a whole array of behavioral abnormalities including harm to self and to others, and bizarre out-of-character antisocial behaviors (see this Section and Sections 2 and 3 below).

A. Adults

B. Children


(2) Antidepressant-induced Suicide 

Antidepressant-induced suicidality is among the most scientifically established facts about antidepressants. Ironically, it is much better established that any claims for antidepressant effectiveness as a treatment (see Section 8 below). It is not surprising that children appear to be more vulnerable than adults to antidepressant-induced suicidality. Because of the immaturity of their brains and minds, their relative inexperience in life, and their dependent status, they are more vulnerable to all neurotoxins, which is why we prohibit their use of other strong psychoactive substances, such as alcohol and marijuana.

A. Adults

B. Children

C. SSRIs Cause Especially Violent Suicides


(3) Antidepressant Violence, Aggression, Hostility,  Irritability and Antisocial Behavior

A. Adults

B. Children

C. Animal Studies 


(4) Antidepressant-Induced Apathy in Children and Adults


(5) Persistent Sexual Dysfunction


(6) Antidepressants Full Prescribing Information (the Label) with Assorted Dates


(7) Selection of Dr. Breggin’s Antidepressant-Related Articles


(8) Antidepressant Ineffectiveness


(9) Antidepressant Damage to Brain and Body of Fetus, Infant and Adult Animals and Humans

A. Animals:  Damage to Fetus and Young Animals

B. Humans:  Damage to Fetus and Infants

C. Damage to Brain in Adult Animals and Humans

D.  Neurogenesis (growth of new neurons)  Antidepressant-induced neurogenesis is touted as proof of the good physical effects of antidepressants, but neurogenesis is typically the brain’s reaction to brain damage.  This section has articles about antidepressant neurogenesis and about neurogenesis in general as an expression of brain damage from stroke, seizures and electroshocks.

E.  Harm to Human Anatomy and Function (Non-CNS)


(10) Discontinuation or Withdrawal Syndrome


(11) Miscellaneous FDA Documents


Antidepressant Drugs Resource Center 


Psychiatric drugs are not only dangerous to take, they are also dangerous to withdraw from. Withdrawal from psychiatric drugs, including antipsychotic drugs, should be done cautiously with professional supervision.
Please see my book, Peter R. Breggin, MD, Psychiatric Drug Withdrawal: A Guide for Prescribers, Therapists, Patients and their Families.


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