The first medical device to treat childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, was OK’d Friday by the US Food and Drug Administration. Designated for children ages 7 to 12 who are not currently on medication for the disorder, the device delivers a low-level electrical pulse to the parts of the brain responsible for ADHD symptoms. “This new device offers a safe, non-drug option for treatment of ADHD in pediatric patients through the use of mild nerve stimulation, a first of its kind,” Carlos Peña […] said in a statement. Called the Monarch external Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation System, eTNS, and marketed by NeuroSigma, the treatment is only available by prescription and must be monitored by a caregiver. The pocket-sized device is connected by wire to a small adhesive patch placed on the child’s forehead above the eyebrows. Designed to be used at home while sleeping, it delivers a “tingling” electrical stimulation to branches of the cranial nerve that delivers sensations from the face to the brain. A clinical trial of 62 children showed that the eTNS increases activity in the regions of the brain that regulate attention, emotion and behavior, all key components of ADHD.
[A]n article in Frontiers in Psychiatry investigating the relationship between antidepressant use and rehospitalization for at a pair of psychiatric hospitals […] found that antidepressant users were hospitalized at a higher rate than similar patients who did not take the drugs and that they stayed in the hospital for longer upon readmission. Antidepressants, the authors conclude, may negatively impact recovery through more and more prolonged psychiatric hospitalizations. “Our data suggest that antidepressant use during acute inpatient care, compared to non-use, may increase the risk and duration of subsequent rehospitalizations over a 12-month follow-up in patients with both primarily affective and non-affective disorders,” write the authors. “Our findings, therefore, challenge the alleged long-term benefit of antidepressants and raise the possibility, that, in the long run, antidepressants may possibly do more harm than good.”
When persons holding the beliefs of modern western “psychiatry” advocate for and attempt to explain electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock therapy, they usually say something like: “We don’t know how it works. We just know that it works.” This is completely understandable since those working in this field of medicine rarely have any training in electrical theory or safety, unlike those working with electrical injuries or those truly using electricity for therapeutic modalities, such as physiotherapists. […] Before the introduction of “modified ECT” and modern western “psychiatry” starting to “offer scientific, humane, and effective (sic) treatments,” so-called “psychiatrists” openly speculated on how brain damage and a lower IQ was beneficial to persons suffering from psychic trauma. Since such speculation is no longer publicly acceptable, all they can say is, “We don’t know how it works. We only know that it works.” […] The only issue for intelligent discussion is whether or not such brain damage is therapeutic, and the only rational question to ask is: how could an intelligent person believe brain damage is therapeutic? It is obviously not therapeutic and believing it is therapeutic is not a question of intelligence, but concerns the ability to think rationally.
St. John’s wort has been used to treat a variety of mental health conditions including depression. Here, we discuss three things to know about using St. John’s wort for depression. St. John’s wort, Hypericum perforatum, is a flowering plant native to Europe that has been used for centuries to treat a variety of mental health conditions, especially depression. The name comes from the fact that St. John’s wort usually blooms on the birthday of the biblical John the Baptist. The yellow flowers and leaves of St. John’s wort contain active ingredients such as hyperforin and hypericin, which are phytochemicals and used to make liquid extracts, pills, teas, along with topical preparations. 1. May have similar effects to a placebo in treating depression […] 2. May decrease the effects of prescription medicines […] 3. May have life-threatening side-effects if combined with antidepressants […] In summary, there is conflicting evidence regarding the use of St. John’s wort in treating depression although most studies suggest that St. John’s wort is just as effective as standard antidepressants but with fewer side effects. Nonetheless, studies have repeatedly shown that it is dangerous and possibly life-threatening to take St. John’s wort in combination with numerous other prescription medicines. As a result, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional about the safety of taking St. John’s wort if someone is already taking other medications.
Withdrawal symptoms following the practice of discontinuation, or abruptly “coming off,” of psychiatric drugs in randomized clinical trials may be mistaken for relapse and bolster the case for continued use of medication, according to two new studies by UCLA researchers published in the journal Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. Principal investigator David Cohen […] said that clinical trials employing a drug discontinuation procedure had not previously been studied systematically. “For years, observers have asked whether people getting more symptoms when they came off their medication was their disorder returning or the withdrawal effects from drugs that could be reduced by more gradual, patient-centered discontinuation,” Cohen said. […]
In 67 percent of studies, no justification was given for a particular discontinuation strategy, which was abrupt or lasted less than two weeks in most cases (60 percent).
In 44 percent of studies that related to antidepressants, stimulants and antipsychotics, researchers used mainly abrupt discontinuation to test whether the drugs prevented relapse. Yet, researchers in most studies did not indicate that misclassifying a withdrawal reaction could occur.
Most studies incorporating benzodiazepines used discontinuation differently. These studies recognized that withdrawal symptoms were common, and they employed longer drug-tapering periods (more than eight weeks in most cases) to help people successfully come off and stay off these drugs.
The pharmaceutical industry was involved in 70 percent of the 80 studies; in most of the relapse-prevention studies; but in few of the benzodiazepines studies with longer tapering periods, according to the researchers.
Cohen […] observed across the 80 studies that […] only a single study out of the 80 actually employed the discontinuation procedure in order to distinguish clearly between “relapse” and “withdrawal symptoms,” the researchers noted. “This suggests to us that sponsors or researchers of discontinuation studies are really uninterested in exploring this crucial question,” Cohen said.
In their second study, Cohen and Récalt focused on whether they could detect evidence in the relapse-prevention randomized control trials that an actual misclassification — a confound — of relapse with withdrawal was occurring. “Most publications do not raise the issue openly, so they do not provide the data to examine this issue directly,” said Cohen […] In line with a stream of previous warnings in the literature, the two studies show that more justifications are needed for why and how these discontinuation trials are conducted. Clinicians and consumers should not accept conventional interpretations of what is actually occurring to deliberately drug-discontinued participants in the trials, Cohen said, “and what this could mean for long-term use of psychiatric medications by ordinary people around the world.”
One in five children suffer from a mental disorder — with notable increases in depression and anxiety over the past 30 years — yet less than one-third have had contact with a mental healthcare provider, a new study finds. Results from the 2014 Ontario Child Health Study actually mirror findings from a similar study conducted in 1983, but this latest version shows a higher proportion of children and youth with disorders have had contact with health providers and in other settings, usually via schools. The new study also found that the patterns of prevalence among different genders and age groups have changed. Specifically, hyperactivity disorders in boys between four and 11 years old spiked from 9% to 16%. Conversely, there was a significant decrease in disruptive behavior in boys 12 to 16 years old, with numbers from 10% to 3%.
Neuroscientist Sara Lazar, of Mass General and Harvard Medical School, started studying meditation by accident. She sustained running injuries training for the Boston Marathon, and her physical therapist told her to stretch. So Lazar took up yoga. […] Eventually, she looked up the scientific literature on mindfulness meditation (a category into which yoga can fall). She found the ever-increasing body of evidence that shows that meditation decreases stress, depression, and anxiety, reduces pain and insomnia, and increases quality of life. […] In her first study, she looked at long-term meditators (those with seven to nine years of experience) versus a control group. The results showed that those with a strong meditation background had increased gray matter in several areas of the brain, including the auditory and sensory cortex, as well as insula and sensory regions. […] However, the neuroscientists also found that the meditators had more gray matter in another brain region, this time linked to decision-making and working memory: the frontal cortex. In fact, while most people see their cortexes shrink as they age, 50-year-old meditators in the study had the same amount of gray matter as those half their age.
The human gut harbors trillions of invisible microbial inhabitants, referred to as the microbiota, that collectively produce thousands of unique small molecules. The sources and biological functions of the vast majority of these molecules are unknown. Yale researchers recently applied a new technology to uncover microbiota-derived chemicals that affect human physiology, revealing a complex network of interactions with potentially broad-reaching impacts on human health. Led by immunobiologist Noah Palm, the research team used a chemical screening technology, known as PRESTO-Tango, that simultaneously tests thousands of human receptors at once. With it, they identified human gut bacteria that release small molecules that activate a specific group of receptors. Since these receptors regulate a wide range of physiological functions, the authors reasoned that the small-molecule-producing bacteria would also impact various aspects of human biology. […] A number of gut microbes produce small molecules that activate receptors for dopamine. One molecule made by a unique gut microbe can reach the brain and potentially impact how different individuals respond to antidepressants.
Tapering patients off selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should be done much more slowly and gradually than currently recommended, over a period of months rather than weeks, in order to avoid withdrawal syndrome, a team of researchers suggested in a paper published online March 5 in Lancet Psychiatry. Although serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) were not the subject of the paper, studies show they show the same hyperbolic dose-response pattern, said the paper’s first author, Mark Abie Horowitz, PhD, a neurobiologist who is currently a clinical research fellow at University College London and a psychiatry trainee at Prince of Wales Hospital in Sydney, Australia. “The clinical data also show that withdrawal symptoms from SNRIs last much longer than the one to two weeks ascribed to them by standard texts, much more in the region of months,” Dr. Horowitz told Neurology Today. “Tapering protocols suggested for SSRIs in the paper also apply to SNRIs; they should occur over at least months, down to doses close to one-fortieth of therapeutic doses and titrated to individual tolerability.”
My guest on the Dr. Peter Breggin Hour yesterday April 17, 2019 is the “Best of the Best.” She is Mary Neal Vieten, PhD, a Commander in the US Navy. This psychologist directs a most extraordinary program outside the military to help active duty and retired warfighters to reconsider psychiatric medications, to deal with trauma and other blocks to success, and to achieve new goals for themselves.
Especially impressive to me is the thoroughness with which she has dispatched the medical model and all the lingo associated with it in order to remove all stigma and to focus on personal empowerment. Commander Vieten is accomplishing one of the single most important goals we can aspire to—the successful development of non-medical, educational and caring-based programs for people who are suffering from severe emotional stress compounded by dreadful medical diagnoses and treatment. I am deeply appreciative of her work.
According to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, approximately 1 in 10 adults in the United States is affected by depression.1 This overwhelming number of people affected are often treated with antidepressant medications. In fact, antidepressants are the prescription medications most frequently used by US adults between the ages of 20 and 59 years.1 According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, antidepressant use increased nearly 65% over the course of 15 years.2 […] Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) constitute the most widely used antidepressants.”5 However, they are associated with significant toxicity. According to the 2016 annual report of the National Poison Date System, SSRIs were number 10 of the top 25 substance categories associated with reported fatalities.6 In particular, SSRIs raise serotonin levels in the body, and when combined with other serotonergic agents, they can lead to a potentially fatal condition called serotonin syndrome (SS). The actual incidence of SS and associated morbidity is likely underestimated, as SS is frequently underdiagnosed and underreported and can easily be overlooked, especially when mild.7 It has been suggested that more than 85% of physicians are not familiar with the existence of SS or which drugs or drug combinations may cause it.8 “In my experience, the majority of prescribers have absolutely no idea that [SS] even exists, let alone what causes it and what to do about it,” according to Irene Campbell-Taylor, MB ChB, PhD […] “It is alarming because SSRIs are among the most frequently prescribed antidepressants, and patients are not usually warned about other serotonergic agents that can interact with SSRIs and induce serotonin syndrome, a condition that can be lethal,” she told Psychiatry Advisor.
Rough day? Step outside for a bit — it may be the strongest and fastest-acting medicine around. A new study finds that spending just 20 minutes walking or even simply sitting down somewhere outdoors that makes you feel more connected with nature can lower your stress hormone levels. “We know that spending time in nature reduces stress, but until now it was unclear how much is enough, how often to do it, or even what kind of nature experience will benefit us,” says lead author Dr. MaryCarol Hunter, an associate professor at the University of Michigan, in a media release. “Our study shows that for the greatest payoff, in terms of efficiently lowering levels of the stress hormone cortisol, you should spend 20 to 30 minutes sitting or walking in a place that provides you with a sense of nature.”
Have you been meaning to meditate but just haven’t gotten around to it? Despite its apparent simplicity, starting a new meditation practice can be intimidating, especially when we are so caught up in our fast-paced and media-saturated lives. The good news is that practicing meditation only takes a moment. That’s right — one moment! That’s even less than a minute! The skills instilled by mindfulness practices are comprehensive and greatly affect an individual’s well-being as they are repeated over time. According to the American Psychological Association, the cognitive benefits of meditation include enhanced “self-control, objectivity, affect tolerance, enhanced flexibility, equanimity, improved concentration and mental clarity, emotional intelligence and the ability to relate to others and one’s self with kindness, acceptance and compassion.”
Researchers at Harvard utilized MRI technology to find that, when engaging in meditation just 27 minutes per day, both long-term meditators and people with no meditation experience showed decreased the grey matter density in the amygdala [a brain region associated with fear], and an increase of grey matter around the hippocampus — the region of the brain responsible for compassion, self-awareness and introspection. A regular meditation practice has even been shown to have an effect on our genes. Research on epigenetics, or gene expression, have shown that it strengthens those genes known to control the stress response, thus making an individual more resilient to stress overall.
Imagine the horror of living in a deep fog day in and day out. Your steps, if you’re able to walk, are wobbly. Your memories are confused. Your grasp of reality is lost. And to discover that you’ve been purposefully sedated for no legitimate reason. Federal reports show that thousands of nursing home residents in Texas are being inappropriately prescribed antipsychotics. They’re not given the drugs because of psychiatric conditions for which they can legitimately be prescribed. Rather, they are being administered for other causes. Sometimes, it’s merely for the convenience of nursing home staff. It’s called a chemical restraint and it’s akin to the way people were handled in the Dark Ages. This is a misuse of one of the most powerful classes of psychiatric drugs. For those with dementia, which is not uncommon among nursing home residents, receiving antipsychotics is especially dangerous, even deadly. That’s why the Food and Drug Administration gives these medicines a black-box warning: an alert of an increased risk of death among people with dementia.
Just as the opioid epidemic has gained the full attention of the medical and law enforcement communities, experts say a new drug is trending upward on a national level among teens and young adults. In New York City, statistics show the number of high school students abusing benzodiazepines […] About 13,000 high school students in New York City used the drug recreationally in 2017, which was about the same as 2015, according to the Center for Disease Control’s Youth Risk Behavior Survey. However, the drug isn’t included in the database prior to 2015, and experts say current data hasn’t caught up with reality. “There’s so many resources that have been put toward educating young people about the dangers of opioid use, but I haven’t seen any messaging toward ‘benzos,'” said Jazmin Rivera, project director for Tackling Youth Substance Abuse, a coalition of stakeholders in the fight against addiction on Staten Island.
As state lawmakers prepare to debate a state budget that again calls for spending tens of millions of dollars to address addiction and substance use, one representative is offering up a plan that would have drug companies pick up the tab. Rep. James O’Day, a West Boylston Democrat, last week urged the Health Care Financing Committee to advance his bill (H 3654) to impose a new assessment on makers of opioids and benzodiazepines dispensed in Massachusetts. The proceeds would be dedicated to substance use disorder education, prevention, intervention, recovery and treatment. “People talk about, ‘We all know someone who has lost someone,’ and to me it has just become way too second-nature,” O’Day said at a Thursday hearing. “We can’t continue to talk about this problem, week after week and month after month, and we all indicate how we all know someone. Well, that’s extremely and painfully true but this particular legislation I filed I think is an important opportunity to hold opioid manufacturers accountable for the devastating effects of their reckless and deceitful marketing practices that have not only impacted other states across the country but definitely here in Massachusetts.”
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that stress and other environmental factors may contribute to the development of schizophrenia.1 Although genes do play a role in the disease, the genetic concordance rate of schizophrenia is approximately 50% — even in identical twins.1 That is why researchers continue to study the psychosocial and environmental inputs linked to the early-stage schizophrenia phenotype.1 Animal studies have suggested that unregulated stress during vulnerable developmental stages in childhood and adolescence can contribute to schizophrenia.1 Human studies point to physical and mental abuse, being socially disadvantaged, and living in an urban environment as risk factors for schizophrenia.1 Children who react poorly to stress and have high anxiety levels are especially vulnerable.1
This year marks an important 30th anniversary of which the world is hardly aware and from which the world has greatly benefitted. In 1989, the scientific community witnessed the first empirically-based published article in which there was an explicit focus on person-to-person forgiving. That paper appeared in the Journal of Adolescence with a focus on how children, adolescents, and young adults thought about forgiveness, particularly with a focus on what circumstances would make their forgiving more likely (Enright, Santos, & Al-Mabuk, 1989). Prior to this study, there was research on apology, or people seeking forgiveness, but never with a deliberate focus on people forgiving one another. […] I have watched as thousands of researchers began to join this field of forgiveness studies. Topics expanded to include the theme of self-forgiveness (Woodyatt & Wenzel, 2013), trait forgiveness or the more general tendency for people to forgive as part of their personality(Emmons, 2001), and even group forgiveness in which different communities as a whole engage in forgiving one another (Wohl, Hornsey, & Bennett, 2012). Cross-cultural studies (see, for example, Hanke & Fischer, 2013; Ho & Fung, 2010) show for the most part that forgiveness is an important construct in many world communities. Forgiveness interventions now are being extended to children who learn about forgiveness by observing story characters as they enter into and resolve conflicts (Enright et al., 2007; Enright & Song, 2018).
Often, when we choose to do something by ourselves, we encounter lots of questions and opposition from friends and peers. Being alone is often perceived as negative. Humans are innately social creatures, and when it comes to how we spend our time, we often subconsciously interpret this social tendency as an expectation — of others and of ourselves. But a growing body of research suggests that solitude actually carries a slew of well-being benefits, from increased self-confidence and creativity to better rest. “There is such pressure to be social in our culture that we forget that being alone is also necessary for our mental health and well-being,” Margarita Azmitia, Ph.D., a psychology professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz, tells Thrive. “The mindfulness movement is an example of how one can use solitude to relieve stress and ‘take a moment’ that results in increased well-being — and we have research evidence of this.”
A new study conducted by an international team of researchers suggests that patients should be tapered off antidepressants medication over months or years. The research study dismisses the preconceived notion that four weeks period to quit antidepressants is sufficient and the withdrawal symptoms are due to underlying mood problems. The new study suggests for a long time period of several months to a year to be taken in consideration for quitting antidepressant smoothly. […] Mark Horowitz, clinical research fellow at the UK National Health Service and co-author of the study, said: “Many people have to pull apart their capsules and reduce the dosage bead by bead. We provided the science to back up what they’re already doing.” Previously, various studies conducted regarding antidepressants quitting drawbacks have showed that people experienced severe withdrawal symptoms during the procedure. A study conducted in Japan in 2010 suggested that around 78% of patients experienced severe withdrawal symptoms.
Getting off my antidepressant was hell. I’m not alone—and the pharmaceutical industry isn’t helping. […] The drug [Cymbalta] was supposed to help me with my depression, and I think on a neurochemical level it did. Alas, the side effects made me less happy, which conflicted with the core purpose of the pill. My brain was sluggish, my body heavy, my ability to feel pleasure dulled across the board. […] I wanted this drug out of my body. Immediately. Next week […] I began a slow tapering-off […] The next two months were absolute hell. Not just on me, of course, but also on the people around me. I either couldn’t sleep or I had to sleep all the time. I felt full after just a few bites of any food, stripped of appetite, but at other times had trouble convincing myself to stop eating as I binged. Like many people, my depression manifests first as anger and then as self-loathing for the anger.
For time-crunched medical students, taking a two-hour introductory class on mindfulness may be just as beneficial for reducing stress and depression as taking an eight-week meditation course, a Rutgers study finds. The study, conducted by researchers at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, is published in the journal Medical Science Educator. The researchers say many medical students would like to use meditation to avoid burnout and provide better medical care, but are daunted by the prospect of making time for a daily meditation routine. “What we found should encourage even the busiest medical students and physicians,” said lead author Periel Shapiro, an MD candidate at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. “There are shorter, sustainable ways to bring meditation into your life, and they can help you reduce stress and depression and improve your medical study and practice.”
Researchers from the University of Colorado Boulder are calling for scientists to abandon candidate gene hypotheses for major depressive disorder after finding the 18 most studied candidate genes for depression are no more linked with the disorder than randomly chosen genes. They published their findings online in The American Journal of Psychiatry. “We are not saying that depression is not heritable at all. It is,” said associate professor Matthew Keller, PhD, senior author of the study. “What we are saying is that depression is influenced by many, many variants, and individually each of those has a miniscule effect.” […] “This study confirms that efforts to find a single gene or handful of genes which determine depression are doomed to fail,” said lead author Richard Border, MA, a graduate student and researcher at the university’s Institute for Behavioral Genetics.
Happiness is arguably one of the most important goals in life. It can also feel like one of the most elusive, perhaps because people are chasing the wrong things. But there is a way to lasting happiness and purpose, New York University business school professor and happiness expert Jonathan Haidt tells CNBC Make It.
“Many people think that happiness comes from getting what you want,” Haidt, author of “The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom ” tells CNBC Make It. But when we get what we want it feels good “only for a very short time — that doesn’t bring us lasting happiness.” People also think, “You’ll never succeed in controlling the world…so focus on yourself…and that is the path to happiness,” he says. “The Stoics in the West, the Buddhists and Hindus in many other Eastern philosophies came to this view.” But it is not the answer either, says Haidt. “This view…says, ‘don’t try to change the world at all — just work on yourself.’ And I think that’s not really the best way.”
Diversity trainings are big business. In the United States, companies spend about £6.1 billion per year, by one estimate, on programmes geared at making companies more inclusive and welcoming to members of often-underrepresented groups (British numbers aren’t easy to come by, but according to one recent survey, over a third of recruiters are planning to increase their investment in diversity initiatives). Unfortunately, there’s little evidence-backed consensus about which sorts of diversity programmes work, and why, and there have been long-standing concerns in some quarters that these programmes don’t do much at all, or that they could actually be harmful. In part because of this dearth of evidence, the market for pro-diversity interventions is a bit of a Wild West with regard to quality. For a new paper in PNAS, a prominent team of researchers, including Katherine Milkman, Angela Duckworth, and Adam Grant of the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School, partnered with a large global organisation to measure the real-world impact of the researchers’ own anti-bias intervention, designed principally to “promote inclusive attitudes and behaviors toward women, whereas a secondary focus was to promote the inclusion of other underrepresented groups (e.g., racial minorities).” The results were mixed at best – and unfortunately there are good reasons to be sceptical that even the more positive results are as positive as they seem.
A majority of people are living with depression. Without help and treatment, it becomes difficult to work and maintain relationships with friends and family. Why medication and therapy treat depression, so does increasing frequency of exercising and switching to healthier diets. According to research, eating unhealthy diets increases the risk or severity of depression, on the flip side, healthy foods reduce the risk. As thus, what should you eat more and what should you avoid for the sake of your mood? Having a healthy diet means eating a wide variety of nutritious foods. Contrariwise, unhealthy diets are those that are low on nutrition and contain a lot of foods that are high in energy. These foods (unhealthy diets) may include.
Kratom is a plant native to Southeast Asia, which can produce stimulant and opioid-like effects. Since kratom use has grown in popularity in the United States as an herbal supplement, concerns have been raised about its safety due to its abuse potential.1 Kratom is currently not federally scheduled as a controlled substance, but it is considered a drug of concern. Additionally, a new report by the CDC found that kratom caused 91 overdose deaths in 27 states.1 The CDC analyzed data from the State Unintentional Drug Overdose Reporting System (SUDORS), which contains detailed information on opioid overdose deaths from death certificates and medical examiner and coroner reports.1 Kratom overdoses are included in SUDORS even though it is not an opioid.
In a new study, a team of researchers from the UK investigated what interventions are available for assisting people who are attempting to discontinue antidepressants. The systematic review of the existing literature, recently published in Annals of Family Medicine, identify Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) as two psychological interventions that have been found to support discontinuation without increasing the risk of relapse/recurrence when compared with clinical management by primary care clinicians. “Providing psychological therapies seems to enable significantly higher discontinuation rates as compared with brief guidance on tapering to primary care clinicians alone,” the authors write. “This approach may work by providing support to patients to manage fears of withdrawal, relapse, and lack of self-efficacy, which are possible barriers to discontinuation. Alternatively, having an effective therapy for the depression or anxiety for which the medication was initially given removes the need for it, without increasing relapse/recurrence risk.”
Psychiatric drug studies routinely use rapid discontinuation from drugs to test whether patients “relapse,” or experience a return of their psychiatric symptoms. However, rapid discontinuation can result in withdrawal effects that mimic “relapse,” meaning that withdrawal from the drugs could be causing the worsening symptoms. According to researchers, withdrawal symptoms from psychiatric drugs “may include anxiety, depression, mania, and psychosis, in addition to nausea and vomiting, tachycardia, lightheadedness, and diarrhea.” This is not an exhaustive list; many other symptoms have been reported. Researchers David Cohen and Alexander M. Récalt, both at UCLA, wanted to discover how pervasively drug trials use rapid discontinuation practices; they also wanted to analyze how much data about relapse might be confounded by withdrawal symptoms. To that end, they conducted two studies, both published in the journal Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics.
A new study reveals that smiling actually makes people feel happier. Researchers from the University of Tennessee and Texas A&M say that, in fact, several of our emotions can be manipulated to a degree by our facial features. The effect, they note, isn’t necessarily long-lasting or even profoundly powerful, but it’s significant enough to show a correlation between our emotions and how we carry ourselves. “It appears that the physical act of smiling can make us feel happy, that frowning can make us feel sad, that scowling can make us feel angry,” says lead researcher Nicholas Coles, a PhD student in social psychology at UT, in an interview posted by the university. […] “Some studies have not found evidence that facial expressions can influence emotional feelings,” Coles says in a statement. “But we can’t focus on the results of any one study. Psychologists have been testing this idea since the early 1970s, so we wanted to look at all the evidence.”
Nicholas Coles, social psychology PhD student at UT, explains the relationship between smiling more and feeling happier.
SCHNEIBEL: That is Nicholas Coles, a social psychology PhD student at UT. He and his colleagues recently published a study on whether making facial expressions can lead people to feel the emotions related to those expressions.
Coles and his team combined nearly 50 years of data from 138 studies involving more than 11,000 participants from all around the world. For over a century, psychologists have disagreed about this topic. But Coles and his team provided the strongest evidence to date that facial expressions can influence our feelings.
COLES: It appears that the physical act of smiling can make us feel happy. That frowning can make us feel sad and that scowling can make us feel angry.
The second in a row of two great radio hours with Jeanne Stolzer, PhD as my guest talking across a broad range of extremely controversial issues including the biological basis of gender differences, the reality of male abuse of women, and the backlash about toxic masculinity that is crushing the identity of boys and men. We emphasize the importance of shared values that defy the concepts of diversity and encourage a unity of basic beliefs in responsibility, mutual respect and love. Society thrives when one-to-one human-to-human relationships transcend warring diverse groups. Shared values that empower all individuals are more important than diversity in creating a healthy society. This is an hour that sharpened my own thinking because Jeanne Stolzer is such an astonishing combination of courageous communicator, devoted scientist, and genuine advocate for freedom and equality. Join the intellectual and spiritual ride that she creates!
Research has established the health benefits of an increased exposure to nature, and birding, of course, is much easier to do outdoors. One study found that just listening to birdsongs can help restore attention and lessen stress. The idea of mindfulness — the psychological state of being focused and fully attentive to your experience in the present — has recently become more familiar thanks to the rise of practices such as meditation and yoga. Diverting all your attention to faint bird calls and methodically searching a wooded area for different birds can help to bring you to this coveted state. I’m not just speculating: Psychology professor David Standish has confirmed birdwatching is an exercise in mindfulness.
Depression is a common mental disorder affecting over 300 million people across the world. It’s estimated that one in ten people in Australia (10.4%) suffer from depression. Alongside other therapies, medication is often used to treat patients with depression. About 8% of Australians are taking antidepressants for depression, anxiety and related conditions (but in this article we’re focusing on depression). Antidepressants are powerful drugs that affect the way the neurotransmitters in our brains work, usually with the outcome of increasing the overall amount of a chemical called serotonin. Low levels of serotonin cause low mood, so increasing the availability of this transmitter improves mood. […] A condition called antidepressant discontinuation syndrome affects about 20% of people withdrawing from antidepressants. This syndrome can cause flu-like symptoms (headache, body aches and sweating), difficulty sleeping, irritability, feeling sick (nausea or even vomiting), disturbance in balance, confusion, anxiety and agitation.
Mangino’s last guest is the author of the book The Boy Crisis, Dr. Warren Farrell. They discuss what factors are negatively impacting young boy’s motivation and sense of purpose. Topics include motivation, parenting, and mental health.
Researchers may be closing in on a way to check athletes while they’re alive for signs of a degenerative brain disease that’s been linked to frequent head blows. Experimental scans found higher levels of an abnormal protein tied to the disease in a study of former National Football League players who were having mood and thinking problems. It’s the first time a major study has tested these scans for detecting chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE, which is only diagnosed now after death, with brain autopsies. […] Mike Adamle, a former running back for the Chicago Bears and sports announcer, has been told he has symptoms consistent with CTE, and has been evaluated by Stern at the Boston research center though he was not part of the current study. “I had more than a few” concussions, Adamle said. “If you were running, everybody kind of led with their head. Back then, it was a test of your macho man stuff.” The illness has been devastating, said his wife, Kim. “He couldn’t remember his lunch or he couldn’t remember his lines on the air,” and lost multiple jobs, she said.
In today’s competitive environment, almost everyone is always stressed or, at least, tired. With technology blurring the definition of working hours, glancing at the mobile screen has become a habit of sorts. We use the same device to check our levels of productivity and steps taken in a day—all in the hope that our work and health will improve. Research, however, says we don’t need technology to achieve either. A study, led by Curtin University in Australia and published in the European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, says people who have the ability to shape their own role, work collaboratively with their colleagues, and participate in mindfulness activities are more likely to stay engaged at work. […] It found that employees who were encouraged to “proactively craft their own jobs, such as by taking on a challenging new work project, learning a new skill, or brainstorming with a colleague to problem solve, were more likely to stay engaged at work”. The research also found that employees who participated in health activities such as mindfulness, stress management, exercise or relaxation programs were more likely to stay engaged at work, as these activities helped to reduce symptoms like stress, anxiety and depression.
Dr. Irvin Yalom is a living legend in the psychotherapy community, a renowned author and existential and group psychotherapist. In his book about overcoming the terror of death, Staring at the Sun, he wrote of a famous philosopher, Heidegger, who makes a crucial distinction between two ways we exist in the world: the Ontological mode of being and the Everyday mode of being. In Ontological mode, we know every moment is precious, we’re in touch with what really matters—like our friendships and loved ones—and we are mindful that every moment, breath, bite, and step are not to be taken for granted. We’re in touch with our morality and the temporary preciousness of life. Accessing Ontological mode doesn’t mean life is always easy, but it helps us feel the preciousness of every moment viscerally, even in the midst of significant struggle, loss, and pain.
A new study published in the current issue of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics sheds new light on long-term studies with antidepressant drugs. The higher occurrence of relapse in the groups assigned to placebo instead of drug continuation may be due to the studies not considering the potential occurrence of withdrawal syndromes. […] Dr. Baldessarini points out that the effects of discontinuing treatment with psychotropic drugs, encountered in both clinically and therapeutic trials, raise important clinical and possible ethical concerns. Available research designed to test for the impact of various rates of discontinuing psychotropic treatments is rare, inconsistent, and inconclusive with respect to early withdrawal reactions commonly encountered with short half-life SSRIs and venlafaxine. Not investigating these issues, could compromise the scientific soundness of research, especially in trials that involve discontinuing a previous or current active treatment to a placebo. Indeed, trials involving discontinuation of an effective treatment are especially likely to produce exaggerated differences in morbidity between continuing treatment versus discontinuing it to an inactive placebo. According to Dr. Baldessarini, these findings highlight the need to recommend discontinuing psychotropic medicines as slowly as possible as we await adequate investigations aimed at testing for ways of conducting drug discontinuations.
Today, Wednesday April 10th, for the second week in a row, Professor of Child Development Jeanne Stolzer will be my radio show guest, this time focusing more intensively on the crushing tragedy of America’s boys. It’s live at 4 PM NY Time on www.prn.fm. The American Psychological Association and Pharmaceutical Empire led by the American Psychiatric Association, in cooperation with many political and academic factions, are making a war on boys and young men that ultimately afflicts all grown men as well. Listen live on www.prn.fm and call in live 4-5 pm to enter the discussion on 888 874 4888. And don’t forget the archives on www.breggin.com. This is a story filled with new information.
People with Parkinson’s disease may have less anxiety and depression when they practice yoga focused on mindfulness and breathing exercises, a small experiment suggests. Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Classic motor symptoms include tremors, rigidity, slowed movements, and postural instability – but patients with Parkinson’s can also experience a variety of cognitive problems as well as psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety, researchers note in JAMA Neurology. For the study, researchers randomly assigned 138 adults with Parkinson’s to participate in eight weeks of either a mindfulness yoga program or an exercise program focused on stretching and resistance training to improve mobility and stability. All of the participants could stand and walk without canes or walkers.
When one has difficulty sleeping, the waking world seems opaque. On top of feeling tired and fatigued, those who experience sleep disturbances can be irritable and have difficulty concentrating. When one has more severe cases of insomnia, one also faces a higher risk of developing heart disease, chronic pain, hypertension, and respiratory disorders. It can also cause some to gain weight. Sleep disruptions can also have a major impact on one’s emotional well-being. A growing body of research has found that sleep disturbances and depression have an extremely high rate of concurrence, and many researchers are convinced that the two are biconditional—meaning that one can give rise to the other, and vice-versa. A paper that was published in Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience concluded, “The link between the two is so fundamental that some researchers have suggested that a diagnosis of depression in the absence of sleep complaints should be made with caution.” The paper’s lead author […] found that 83 percent of depressed patients experienced some form of insomnia, which was more than double the amount (36 percent) of those without depression.
A recent study by the American Psychological found that 60% of Americans are stressed by money and work — who isn’t, right? The study also identified multiple negative effects of stress including anxiety, chest pains, fatigue, lack of sleep and depression. Well I’m not going to say that using one of these apps is going to solve something like depression or heal anyone of anxiety, but what they will do is improve your day, big time. If you’re anything like me, a busy entrepreneur that has about 5 million things going on in my brain at any given moment, you’ll want take a moment and consider one of these apps to help you stay focused, steady and most importantly more mindful through out the day.
When he arrived at the hospital by ambulance, the 70-year-old man said he felt like he was dying. He was pale, nauseated, and reported severe chest pain. “He had had hallucinations at home,” says his doctor, Alexandra Saunders, MD, chief medical resident for Dalhousie University in St. John, New Brunswick, Canada. Soon, the medical team confirmed he’d had a heart attack. He had eaten a marijuana-laced lollipop, given to him by a friend who thought it might help him sleep. “I don’t know if we can say it caused the heart attack,” Saunders says, citing the patient’s pre-existing heart disease. ”We don’t have enough guidance to say what a safe dose would be.” […] When a marijuana edible is eaten, the blood level of THC peaks in about 3 hours, compared to 30 minutes when inhaled […] Gomez advises those trying marijuana CBD edibles: “Start low and go slow. You don’t know how the dosage level is going to interact with your body. Definitely start with small doses and wait [before eating more].”
As the son of parents who immigrated to the U.S. from El Salvador, Jimmy Castellanos grew up being told how lucky he was to live in such a great country. He felt lucky, too — so much so that he enlisted to become a Marine. He thought it was his patriotic duty. In March 2004, then 20-year-old Castellanos was stationed at Al Asad Air Base, not far outside Baghdad, Iraq. There he maintained Marine aircraft as an aviation ordnance technician. On the 18th of that month, Castellanos was assigned to a standard resupply mission during which he’d ride in a truck to pick up some provisions elsewhere on the base. Only a few minutes before he was supposed to leave, however, a sergeant ordered him to stay behind and help guard an ammunition supply point. So Castellanos swapped spots with his roommate, who had been on guard duty for 12 hours.
According to nutritional psychiatry, there is a huge connection between gut health and brain function. The gut houses 90% of our serotonin receptors (the feel-good chemicals that make us happy) so what we eat matters when it comes to our mood. Here are three healthy snacks with mood-boosting ingredients that can help you get out of that funk: 1. Kombucha Kombucha is fermented tea that’s packed with probiotics (good gut bacteria that occurs naturally) and prebiotics (plant-based fibres that help probiotics grow.) […] Aside from its A+ in the taste department, Kombucha has been shown to boost mood and decrease depression. According to a 2017 review from the Annals of General Psychiatry, researchers found that out of 10 studies, the majority of them showed that probiotics can improve symptoms of depression. 2.Granola bars Did you know that the granola bar at the bottom of your bag could help you feel happier today? These handy little bars are packed with vitamins, minerals, and nutrients that are known to alleviate stress, anxiety, and depression. Not all granola bars are created equal though, so make sure to find one that knows how important these mood-boosting ingredients are. […] 3. Chickpeas and lentils These legumes may look tiny but they’re great for your mental health in a big way! Sprinkle them on your salad for tons of protein, fibre, B vitamins, magnesium, and folate!
Late last month, The Washington Post published findings from the University of Chicago’s General Social Survey, offering yet another piece to the puzzle in understanding the current sex drought in America. […] The decline is even more drastic when comparing the sexes. For the past 30 years, twentysomething women and men reported comparable rates of sexlessness. But in 2018, 28 per cent of young men reported having no sex in the past year, while only 18 per cent of young women said the same. Furthermore, 27 per cent of men under 30 reported not having sex since turning 18, a percentage that has more than tripled in the past 10 years. […] Others have interpreted these findings as a positive sign, that perhaps young American adults are simply making better decisions about sex. But according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are skyrocketing. Chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis totalled almost 2.3 million cases in the United States, marking the highest number of reported cases to date, particularly among those aged 15 to 24.
Negativity, anxiety, anger, stress, trauma, and depression: chances are very high that you or someone you love struggles with these negative emotions. There are many ways to deal with emotional pain. Self-medication with harmful substances or behaviors briefly offers relief, only to make the problem worse in the long run. These include food, drugs, alcohol, risky sexual behavior, shopping, mindless TV, video games or internet surfing. Christian psychiatrist Dr. Daniel Amen offers new hope. He says many of us can turn around our negative emotions by changing some of our daily habits. Furthermore, he suggests several coping mechanisms that can make us feel better now and later. […] “Here at Amen Clinics, we look at people’s brains,” he told CBN News, “We have a database of 150-thousand scans on people from 120 countries. And when I started looking at the brain, I’m like, ‘Oh, we can make it better or we can make it worse.'”
Yoga is like a miracle drug. It has been shown to reduce stress and anxiety, improve mood, reduce inflammation, counteract depression, and promote sleep and breathing, among other things. New research published in the journal Body Image adds another benefit to the list. In this latest article, researchers at Washington State University show that a regular regimen of yoga can improve individuals’ body appreciation. Here’s how they arrived at this conclusion. They recruited 376 undergraduates from Washington State University who were enrolled in a 16-week yoga class. The researchers asked participants to complete measures of mindfulness and body appreciation at various points throughout the 16-week course. […] As they hypothesized, the researchers found an upward movement in the body appreciation scale at later time points during the yoga course. This suggests that yoga does, in fact, improve self-image.
In an astonishing disclosure about the two greatest dangers to the future of America’s economy, Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell revealed on CBS’ “60 Minutes” last month the peril posed by “young males”: young males not looking for work; being addicted to drugs (think opioid crisis); and being unprepared for the transition to technology. Powell posits that this economic problem is also a national security problem. He implies that we ignore this crisis at our own peril. Yet his warning is ignored. In my half-century of research on boys and men, I have discovered that there is, in fact, a boy crisis, that it is a global crisis, and that it is particularly egregious in America. The crisis is more than economic. It is multifaceted, with each facet magnifying the others. It is a crisis of education. Worldwide, 60% of the students who achieve less than the baseline level of proficiency in any of the three core subjects of the Program for the International Assessment are boys. Even boys’ IQs are dropping.
Researchers from the University of Toronto say that being exposed to things that stoke thoughts of drinking coffee can stimulate arousal in the brain and increase one’s alertness and attention similar to the way actually drinking a cup can. They examined a psychological effect called priming, in which subtle cues of something familiar can influence one’s thoughts and behavior. “People often encounter coffee-related cues, or think about coffee, without actually ingesting it,” says study co-author Sam Maglio, an expert on consumer behavior and an associate professor in the Department of Management at UT Scarborough, in a release. “We wanted to see if there was an association between coffee and arousal such that if we simply exposed people to coffee-related cues, their physiological arousal would increase, as it would if they had actually drank coffee.”
Spiritual guidance is a term we often hear but what does it really mean? Can you receive help with a problem from beyond? If the answer yes, how can you make this happen? As a shaman and spiritual counselor, I’m often asked these types of questions, particularly from people in recovery from an addiction. Perhaps you can relate? My hope in penning this piece is to help provide answers while dispelling common myths. Hopefully, by the end of this piece, you will have a deeper understanding of what spiritual guidance means and how to receive it. …
Nearly 1 in 5 Oklahoma nursing home residents is being given powerful antipsychotic drugs despite the lack of an appropriate medical diagnosis, according to a 2018 AARP report. Unprescribed drugs designed for people with schizophrenia and other severe psychiatric disorders are being given to a greater portion of the state’s nursing home population than those of any other state, according to the report. Routinely using drugs inappropriately to tranquilize patients who are difficult to manage is a nightmarish scenario that must stop. Legislation pending in the state House would crack down on the practice.
A bill filed in the N.C. Senate last week aims to prevent people from abusing legal drugs and guide those with drug dependencies toward treatment to address the opioid epidemic in North Carolina. If passed, Senate Bill 546, or the Opioid Epidemic Response Act, would eliminate the state registration requirement for prescribers of buprenorphine, a medication used to treat opioid addictions. It would also decriminalize drug testing equipment used to detect contaminants in controlled substances, remove the ban on the use of state funds to purchase supplies for the syringe exchange program and revise the N.C. Controlled Substances Reporting System (CSRS). […] “We can’t arrest our way out of this problem, so we want to drive people toward treatment, and we want to make sure that the treatment facilities are on the up and up, they’re using the best practices and we want to hold them accountable for being efficient and graduating these individuals from drug dependency,” he said.
As commander of the coalition forces in Iraq, Maj. Gen. Walter Piatt juggled ruthless pursuit of enemies and delicate diplomacy with tribal leaders, using a trove of modern weaponry and streams of tech-generated data. But his best decisions, he said, relied on a tool as ancient as it is powerful. Maj. Gen. Piatt often began daily operations by breathing deliberately, slack-jawed, staring steadily at a palm tree. Mindfulness — the practice of using breathing techniques, similar to those in meditation, to gain focus and reduce distraction — is inching into the military in the United States and those of a handful of other nations. […] The approach, he said, is based on the work of Amishi Jha, an associate professor of psychology at the University of Miami. She is the senior author of a paper published in December about the training’s effectiveness among members of a special operations unit. The paper, in the journal Progress in Brain Research, reported that the troops who went through a monthlong training regimen that included daily practice in mindful breathing and focus techniques were better able to discern key information under chaotic circumstances and experienced increases in working memory function. The soldiers also reported making fewer cognitive errors than service members who did not use mindfulness.
Depression is the second leading cause of disability in the world; isolating risk and protective factors can aid in reducing the prevalence of depression worldwide. […] One variable that has been recently explored as a protective factor is religiosity/spirituality. […] Many studies have demonstrated the positive effects of religiosity for depression (2, 3). […] In sum, it seems like religiosity/spirituality may confer resilience to the development/recurrence of depressive episodes in individuals in general and in ones with high risk in specific. This resiliency is maybe a result of the relationship between religiosity and a thicker cortex, efficient macro-structure and connections, or better blood flow to brain areas implicated in depression (9). Scientists are still working to discover more protective factors.
Screen time has little effect on the psychological wellbeing of teenagers, regardless of whether they use devices for hours a day or just before bedtime, according to a study by researchers at Oxford University. The research, based on analysis of the screen use of more than 17,000 teenagers across Ireland, the US and the UK, found use of screens before bedtime was completely unrelated to psychological wellbeing, and screen time more generally had a “minuscule” effect on wellbeing in teenagers when compared with other activities in an adolescent’s life. The effect was believed to be small enough that adolescents “would need to report 63 hours and 31 minutes’ more of technology use a day in their time-use diaries to decrease their wellbeing” by an amount big enough for them to notice. […] “The analysis is robust and suggests an overall population effect too small to warrant consideration as a public health problem. They also question the widely held belief that screens before bedtime are especially bad for mental health.”
Before antidepressants, I was articulate and accomplished. I could think — I could do anything I set out to do. I was a banking executive living in a beautiful apartment in Boston’s Back Bay when a home invasion in 1985 prompted my doctor to prescribe antidepressants for PTSD. Just as my attacker slammed into me, SSRI antidepressants ambushed the neurotransmitters in my brain causing cognitive decline, severe anxiety, panic attacks and suicidal depression. They helped me function for a while, but the debilitating mental and physical side effects of antidepressants held me prisoner. I couldn’t “decide” to get off them. When the antidepressants didn’t “work,” my doctors either upped the dosage of the one I was on or switched me to a different one. A higher dose made the side effects worse; a new drug continued the assault on my brain under a different name.
An acquaintance recently shared with me what he apparently felt was outstanding news: “I just found out I’m clinically depressed!” he beamed with pride. He perhaps thought that I, as a psychiatrist, would share in his excitement. Maybe he thought it would strike a chord of kinship for me to know he’s “one of my people.” Or part of my “target population.” In line with my training, I was struck with how his affect seemed seriously off-kilter given his proclaimed diagnosis. (Hmm, come to think of it, maybe he really was deeply disturbed). In inquiring further, I learned that he was supremely satisfied to discover that there is now an explanation for the sense of personal dysfunction (his words) that he says he has experienced his entire life. He wore his new diagnosis like a shiny badge—as if he’d just joined an elite and exclusive club.
A fascinating picture of two very different mice shows anti-aging drugs really do work. Scientists gave the youth-enhancing medication to mice, with some of the rodents being left with glossy fur and bright eyes. This is a stark contrast from the frail, tired-looking mice who did not receive the drugs – and could easily be confused as being twice as old as the treated animals.
Mice treated with the drugs kept their glossy fur and bright eyes
Stark contrast to the frail, tired-looking mice who did not receive the medication
Drugs extended the rodents’ lifespan by 36% – equivalent of 30 human years
Six trials are testing the drugs in humans, which may be available in two years
Researchers found giving the rodents anti-aging – or senolytic – drugs extended their lives by 36 per cent – the equivalent of around 30 human years. Six trials testing senolytic drugs in humans are already underway and a further half a dozen are due to start in the near future. If successful, medication that slows aging may be available in as little as two years, the researchers claim. The research was carried out by the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, and led by Dr James Kirkland, a clinical geriatrician and director of the Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging. […] Rather than just trying to treat one disease, scientists are now looking to create a broad-spectrum drug that can ‘turn off’ the process that triggers a host of conditions. Dr Kirkland compares this to an antibiotic that is capable of relieving up to 25 infections.
Ian’s thoughts: Here’s an NIH news release on the same research by Kirkland et al. Last year we posted a study that showed the inexpensive over-the-counter supplement fisetin, a plant polyphenol, has the same effect in mice of reducing senescent cells, aka, ‘zombie cells’.
Long-term care providers have made remarkable progress in reducing antipsychotics. Now it’s time to turn the attention to antidepressants. A recent quality improvement project, which had results published in the Annals of Long-Term Care, was a fascinating look into how this can succeed, and how barriers come up. Alicia Harbison, D.O., and Joseph Mwesige, M.D, oversaw the project at a nursing home in 2017. Their goal was decreasing the use of antidepressants among 55 residents by 25% within three months. Around half of the residents involved had dementia, not depression, which can have similar symptoms. Harbison noted that many of the residents were no longer able to tell the clinicians how long they had been on a specific medication, and there was no access to their previous electronic health records. “A common issue is that our elderly patients were placed on a medication and were never told when to stop it,” she said. “As they aged and have other medical conditions, then they have blood pressure medications and various other drugs, and no one has thought, ‘When do we stop the antidepressant?’” […] “A lot of residents were on five-plus medications,” Harbison said. “For most people, many medications you grow out of, or change so that you don’t need them anymore.”
A proposal to loosen detention rules in Washington’s involuntary treatment act is dividing rights groups and mental health advocates in Olympia. The bill, from Sen. Manka Dhingra, D-Redmond, would allow people having a mental health or substance abuse crisis to be held for up to five days before seeing a judge, putting Washington among the states with the longest such holds nationwide. The change would target the state’s involuntary treatment act, which currently allows authorities to hold non-criminal patients against their will for 72 hours before an initial hearing. But while supporters say that would give more time for treatment, groups including the state’s disability rights watchdog have objected. The bill received a public hearing Thursday, likely one of the last before lawmakers decide whether to bring it to a full vote of the state House.
About 11 million deaths a year are linked to poor diet around the globe. What’s driving this? As a planet we don’t eat enough healthy foods including whole grains, nuts, seeds, fruits and vegetables. At the same time, we consume too many sugary drinks, too much salt and too much processed meat. As part of a new study published in The Lancet, researchers analyzed the diets of people in 195 countries using survey data, as well as sales data and household expenditure data. Then they estimated the impact of poor diets on the risk of death from diseases including heart disease, certain cancers and diabetes. (They also calculated the number of deaths related to other risk factors, such as smoking and drug use, at the global level.) “This study shows that poor diet is the leading risk factor for deaths in the majority of the countries of the world,” says study author Ashkan Afshin of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington. Unhealthy diets are “a larger determinant of ill health than either tobacco or high blood pressure,” he says.
A very challenging show, with my brilliant and enthusiastic guest Jeanne Stolzer, PhD., an award-winning teacher. It is filled with unorthodox but scientific ideas that do not yield to political correctness. About the differences between women and men built into our bodies by physical evolution, passed on by our genes, and then affected by family and society and our own individuality. How these differences were used by men in very recent millennia to develop patriarchal societies that enforce the subjugation of women. But how, on the other hand, the reflexive rejection of these actual biological and evolutionary differences between men and women has been especially harmful to boys and men in recent decades, disempowering and intimidating them. Is masculinity now a “disease” as the American Psychological Association says, and what does such a concept do to boys and men? How women of course have a right and ought to be free of patriarchy and also to reject traditional roles, but what can society do to support those women who do want to be the primary caretakers of their children? What are the consequences of not nursing a child and not providing a constant, loving caretaker in the early years of life? You are not likely to hear a discussion remotely like this anywhere else, making this a unique and important hour of conversation that is critical to all our lives and to where society is going. It simply would not be permitted at most universities or in the media.
A popular smartphone app based on cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness showed efficacy in individuals with symptoms of anxiety and depression, data presented at the Anxiety and Depression Association of America annual meeting showed. There has been increased demand for technology-based behavioral health tools to ease the burden of mental illness, according to the meeting abstract. […] Moberg and colleagues found that self-reported depression, anxiety and stress declined at 1 month among adults who used the app and self-reported self-efficacy rose, according to results from the intent-to-treat analysis. Although the researchers found no relationship between overall app engagement and symptom improvement, follow-up analysis indicated that participants who finished more thought record exercises saw a greater degree of sustained symptom improvements through the 2-month follow-up than those who completed fewer exercises, according to the abstract. Furthermore, participants who also took psychiatric medications during the trial had less benefit from the app, as measured by reduction of anxiety and stress symptoms. This app may be especially helpful to individuals who use thought records and do not take psychiatric medication, according to the abstract.
Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychiatric symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder, according to study data published in the Journal of Affective Disorders. […] Maladaptive perfectionism was a significant predictor of low self-compassion, and low self-compassion, in turn, was a significant predictor of self-reported depression (both P <.01). Patients with greater maladaptive perfectionism scores had more severe self-reported depression, an effect partially mediated by self-compassion. However, self-compassion did not appear to predict clinician-rated depression or to mediate the relationship between perfectionism and clinician-rated depression, suggesting a discrepancy between self- and clinician-rated measures. Lower self-compassion was also associated with greater levels of anxiety and emotion regulation difficulties. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and anxiety as well as the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and emotion regulation difficulties. […] “Given evidence that self-compassion may be modifiable through psychotherapy, the present findings suggest that individuals with [bipolar depression] who exhibit maladaptive perfectionistic tendencies may potentially benefit from psychological interventions designed to foster self-compassion,” the researchers concluded.
The use of valbenazine was shown to significantly improve tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and other mood disorders, according to supplemental analysis results published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. […] After post hoc analysis, the researchers reported that medium-to-high effect sizes were seen for mean changes in AIMS total score from baseline to week 6 (40-mg group: −1.8, d=0.52; 80-mg group: −3.1, d=0.89). In addition, AIMS total score treatment responses between 10% and 70% improvement were found to be statistically significant in the valbenazine 80-mg arm vs placebo (P ≤.01). Researchers noted that the KINECT 3 study was not designed to test all the post hoc analyses presented. “Results from these supplemental AIMS analyses indicated a consistently stronger effect with valbenazine versus placebo, with sustained improvements during double-blind long-term valbenazine treatment,” the researchers wrote. “It is hoped that these analyses will help clinicians interpret clinical trial data and make relevant treatment decisions for their patients with [tardive dyskinesia],” they concluded.
Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of later psychotic disorder but whether it affects incidence of the disorder remains unclear. We aimed to identify patterns of cannabis use with the strongest effect on odds of psychotic disorder across Europe and explore whether differences in such patterns contribute to variations in the incidence rates of psychotic disorder.
Figure 2 Fully adjusted ORs of psychotic disorders for the combined measure of frequency plus type of cannabis use in three sites. Error bars represent 95% CIs. OR=odds ratio.
Our main findings show that among the measures of cannabis use tested, the strongest independent predictors of whether any given individual would have a psychotic disorder or not were daily use of cannabis and use of high-potency cannabis. The odds of psychotic disorder among daily cannabis users were 3·2 times higher than for never users, whereas the odds among users of high-potency cannabis were 1·6 times higher than for never users. Starting to use cannabis by 15 years of age modestly increased the odds for psychotic disorder but not independently of frequency of use or of the potency of the cannabis used. These measures of extent of exposure did not interact with each other, nor did they interact with the sites. This lack of interaction between degree of cannabis use (ie, daily use of cannabis or use of high-potency cannabis) and site might reflect insufficient power in our study; however, it could also indicate that although the magnitude of the effect might vary depending on the degree of cannabis use, there is a consistent effect of daily use and use of high-potency cannabis on the ORs for psychotic disorders across all study sites.
Taking more vacation days leads to greater happiness, researchers have found. But if that’s not an option, there’s a near-term solution: treat your weekend like a mini-vacation. Researchers at UCLA’s Anderson School of Management report employees who adopt a vacation mindset on weekends feel happier and more refreshed come Monday morning compared to those who don’t. Their studies, which involved more than 1,000 people, found those who acted like they were on vacation spent more time eating and being intimate and less time doing chores and caring for children, but researchers say the greater levels of happiness had more to do with the subjects’ “in the moment” mentality, no matter the activity or the money spent.
In a new study, mountain hiking had similar psychological and stress-reducing benefits whether or not there were signs of human habitation […] The researchers sent 52 volunteers to spend three October days in “a renowned summer and winter sports area” in the Austrian Alps. On back-to-back days in random order, they did two hikes that were as identical as possible—a bit more than 4 miles, climbing and then descending about 2,500 feet, taking about three hours, walking at similar speeds—with one crucial difference. One of the hikes took place in an area with virtually no signs of human habitation, while the other was continually in sight of features like a highway, ski lift, snow cannons, construction sites, and a parking lot. The purpose of the study wasn’t disclosed, so the subjects weren’t alerted to the differences between the two hikes. […] The results of the Austrian study suggest that getting into nature is great regardless of the presence or absence of manmade features. The cortisol data, for example, showed a nice drop from pre-hike to mid-hike, and a further drop by the end of the hike—but no differences between the two hikes.
Big Pharma Family Planned To Profit From Addiction
It was 2014, and the company the family had controlled for two generations, Purdue Pharma, had been hit with years of investigations and lawsuits over its marketing of the highly addictive opioid painkiller OxyContin, at one point pleading guilty to a federal felony and paying more than $600 million in criminal and civil penalties. But as the country’s addiction crisis worsened, the Sacklers spied another business opportunity. They could increase their profits by selling treatments for the very problem their company had helped to create: addiction to opioids. Details of the effort, named Project Tango, have come to light in lawsuits filed by the attorneys general of Massachusetts and New York. Together, the cases lay out the extensive involvement of a family that has largely escaped personal legal consequences for Purdue Pharma’s role in an epidemic that has led to hundreds of thousands of overdose deaths in the past two decades.
Jeanne Stolzer, PhD, a brilliant professor of child development, warns about the ruination of America’s boys on The Dr. Peter Breggin Hour tomorrow, Wednesday, April 3 at 4 pm NY Time. It’s not just psychiatric drugs, it’s everything going around them that undermines their identity. This is a discussion of vast importance. Listen on www.prn.fm and call in to join the conversation on 888 874 4888.
Grit alone got Linda Greene through her husband’s muscular dystrophy, her daughter’s traumatic brain injury, and her own mysterious illness that lasted for three years and left her vomiting daily before doctors identified the cause. But eventually, after too many days sitting at her desk at work crying, she went to see her doctor for help. He prescribed an antidepressant and referred her to a psychiatrist. When the first medication didn’t help, the psychiatrist tried another – and another and another – hoping to find one that made her feel better. Instead, Greene felt like a zombie and sometimes she hallucinated and couldn’t sleep. In the worst moment, she found herself contemplating suicide. “It was horrible,” she said. She never had suicidal thoughts before and was terrified. She went back her primary care doctor. […] When she and her doctor got the results, they noticed an antidepressant that hadn’t worked well for her back in college was supposedly a good match for her genetics. She tried a different recommended medication, but after a few weeks, her symptoms were worse than ever. Now, she’s off that antidepressant and relying on a medication she had already been taking for anxiety, vitamin supplements, yoga and diet changes to address her symptoms.
A new time-released formulation of a drug used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat children as young as six years old. It’s called Adhansia XR and its active ingredient is methylphenidate [Ritalin], which has been used to treat ADHD for more than 50 years. […] So, what makes Adhansia XR different from the drugs that came before it? “The only difference in this new drug and the old ones is the higher dose,” Dr. Mary Ann Block, a Texas-based physician and non-pharmaceutical ADHD treatment author, told Healthline. […] Adhansia XR also happens to be manufactured by Purdue Pharma, the company that made its fortune advertising, marketing, and selling oxycodone (OxyContin). The company is currently exploring bankruptcy in the wake of roughly 2,000 lawsuits that accuse the company of contributing to the opioid epidemic in the United States. Purdue’s newly approved ADHD medication is currently the highest dose available on the market — and they want to go higher.
Nonsurgical brain stimulation is a viable alternative or add-on treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults, new research suggests. Investigators reviewed 113 clinical trials that randomized over 6700 patients (average age 48 years, approximately half women) with MDD or bipolar depression to an array of nonsurgical stimulations or sham therapy, focusing on response (efficacy) and all-cause discontinuation (acceptability).
Researchers at the University of Utah believe people who live at higher altitudes can become more depressed than people who live closer to sea level. The effect, they say, is especially noticeable in women. Dr. Shami Kanekar said she understands one of the main reasons people move to Utah is for the beautiful mountains. Skiing is supposed to make people happy, but that doesn’t always end up being the case for people with depression. “They go up to the mountains for vacation but feel extremely depressed, and their medication’s not working,” she said. “They’re more depressed!” […] “You see higher depression, higher anxiety in females, while males don’t seem to have that change,” Kanekar said.
She began taking twenty milligrams of Prozac, an antidepressant; when she still didn’t feel better, her dose was increased to forty milligrams, and then to sixty. With each raised dose, she felt thankful to have been heard. “It was a way for me to mark to the world: this is how much pain I am in,” she said. Laura wasn’t sure whether Prozac actually lifted her mood—roughly a third of patients who take antidepressants do not respond to them—but her emotions felt less urgent and distracting, and her classwork improved. “I remember her carrying around this plastic pillbox with compartments for all the days of the week,” a friend from high school said. “It was part of this mysterious world of her psychiatric state.” […] ‘What the heck is going on?’ ” Most antidepressants dampen sexuality—up to seventy per cent of people who take the medications report this response—but Laura was ashamed to talk about the problem with her psychiatrist. “I assumed he’d see sexuality as a luxury,” she said. “He’d be, like, ‘Really? You have this serious illness, and you’re worried about that?’ ”
Despite the interest in self-care these days, there’s a growing body of evidence suggesting that what ancient wisdom has taught for eons is true—turning attention away from ourselves and toward others is really the key to happiness. To this end, a new study from Iowa State University finds that when people mentally wish others well for just a brief period, they’re considerably happier and less stressed than people engaging in even other seemingly beneficial activities. The work was published this month in the Journal of Happiness Studies. To understand how wishing others well might affect mood and other variables, the research team first gave a group of undergraduate participants surveys to capture a number of measures regarding their states—happiness, stress level, satisfaction with life, empathy, level of caring, and feelings of connectedness. They also measured a number of personality traits, including their overall level of mindfulness, narcissism, intellectualness, and so on.
It’s very difficult to distinguish helpful ways of thinking about your stressors from unhelpful ones. Your brain will try to convince you that you’re helping yourself by worrying and ruminating. In fact, you are probably making things worse. Repetitive negative thinking can make you more passive about solving the problem, lower your mood, and kill your joy. But reducing worry is easier said than done. Your brain’s wiring makes you naturally vigilant for any future dangers or threats. You need practical tools and practices to be most successful. The following research-based practices can help you break free from rumination.
Interview VI of VIII, Dr. Breggin describes how Yale’s visiting professor, Jose Delgado, put caps on the heads of patients to stimulate their brain by remote control—and how Dr. Breggin’s reform work stopped all the Harvard/Yale experiments. When Dr. Breggin started his successful international campaign to stop psychosurgery in the early 1970s, he never imagined the mind-control aspirations and racist motivations espoused by key neurosurgeons and psychiatrists. […] For detailed descriptions of Peter and Ginger Breggin’s successful campaigns to stop federally-funded psychosurgical, eugenic and racist programs of behavioral control, see Psychiatry as an Instrument of Social and Political Control.
Before antidepressants, I was articulate and accomplished. I could think — I could do anything I set out to do. I was a banking executive living in a beautiful apartment in Boston’s Back Bay when a home invasion in 1985 prompted my doctor to prescribe antidepressants for PTSD. Just as my attacker slammed into me, SSRI antidepressants ambushed the neurotransmitters in my brain causing cognitive decline, severe anxiety, panic attacks and suicidal depression. They helped me function for a while, but the debilitating mental and physical side effects of antidepressants held me prisoner. I couldn’t “decide” to get off them. […] Antidepressants caused innumerable mental and physical problems. I merely subsisted from day-to-day trying to cope with what the drugs were doing to me. Uncontrollable high anxiety ruled, and I thought about suicide every day.
A very good Open Mic Wednesday, which takes place every last Wednesday of the month at 4 pm NY time. The number to call from anywhere is 888 874 4888. Today, calls varied from how to live life without drugs to surviving as a good therapist in professional communities that push drugs. I also talk about the secrets to life. The last Wednesday of the month focuses on callers, but you can call my talk radio show at 888 874 4888 at 4 pm NY time any Wednesday while you listen to the show on www.prn.fm or its app.
For decades neuroscience, like most research areas, overwhelmingly studied only males, assuming that everything fundamental to know about females would be learned by studying males. […] Gradually however, and inexorably, we neuroscientists are seeing just how profoundly wrong — and in fact disproportionately harmful to women — that assumption was, especially in the context of understanding and treating brain disorders. Any reader wishing to confirm what I am writing can easily start by perusing online the January/February 2017 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience Research, the first ever of any neuroscience journal devoted to the topic of sex differences in its entirety. All 70 papers, spanning the neuroscience spectrum, are open access to the public. […] Recognizing our obligation to carefully study sex influences in essentially all domains (not just neuroscience), the National Institute of Health on January 25, 2016 adopted a policy (called “Sex as a Biological Variable,” or SABV for short) requiring all of its grantees to seriously incorporate the understanding of females into their research. This was a landmark moment, a conceptual corner turned that cannot be unturned. But the remarkable and unprecedented growth in research demonstrating biologically-based sex influences on brain function triggered 5-alarm fire bells in those who believe that such biological influences cannot exist.
The share of U.S. adults reporting no sex in the past year reached an all-time high in 2018, underscoring a three-decade trend line marked by an aging population and higher numbers of unattached people. But among the 23 percent of adults — or nearly 1 in 4 — who spent the year in a celibate state, a much larger than expected number of them were twentysomething men, according to the latest data from the General Social Survey. Experts who study Americans’ bedroom habits say there are a number of factors driving the Great American Sex Drought. Age is one of them: The 60 and older demographic climbed from 18 percent of the population in 1996 to 26 percent in 2018, according to the survey.
The share reporting no sex has consistently hovered around 50 percent, and because that age group is growing relative to everyone else, it has the net effect of reducing the overall population’s likelihood of having sex. […] Young men also are more likely to be living with their parents than young women: In 2014, for instance, 35 percent of men age 18 to 34 were living in their parents’ home, compared with 29 percent of women in that age group. At the risk of stating the obvious, “when you’re living at home it’s probably harder to bring sexual partners into your bedroom,” Twenge said.
Nutritional psychiatrists counsel patients on how better eating may be another tool in helping to ease depression and anxiety and may lead to better mental health.
A study of more than 12,000 Australians published in the American Journal of Public Health in 2016 found that individuals who increased the number of servings of fruits and vegetables that they ate reported that they were happier and more satisfied with their life than those whose diets remained the same. […] Another study of 422 young adults from New Zealand and the United States showed higher levels of mental health and well-being for those who ate more fresh fruits and vegetables. Interestingly, the same benefits did not accrue to those who ate canned fruits and vegetables. “We think this is due to the higher nutrient content of raw fruits and vegetables, particularly B vitamins and vitamin C, which are vulnerable to heat degradation,” said Tamlin Conner, a study author and senior lecturer at the University of Ota. One of the first randomized controlled trials to test whether dietary change may be effective in helping to treat depression was published in 2017. In the study, led by Felice Jacka, a psychiatric epidemiologist in Australia, participants who were coached to follow a Mediterranean diet for 12 weeks reported improvements in mood and lower anxiety levels. Those who received general coaching showed no such benefits.
Question Is exposure to air pollution associated with adolescent psychotic experiences? Findings In this nationally representative cohort study of 2232 UK-born children, significant associations were found between outdoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter and reports of psychotic experiences during adolescence. Moreover, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides together explained 60% of the association between urban residency and adolescent psychotic experiences. Meaning The association between urban residency and adolescent psychotic experiences is partly explained by the higher levels of outdoor air pollution in urban settings.
We’ve all heard the adage, Happy wife, happy life. And it turns out it may be true. A study led by a Rutgers University researcher found that a husband’s life satisfaction tended to be greater when his wife described their marriage as a happy one. But let’s take this adage one step further and ask an even more intriguing question: Can having a happy spouse (regardless of gender) not only lead to a happier life but a longer one as well? That is the question a researcher from the Netherlands recently set out to answer. In this study […] The first notable result was this: The life satisfaction of one’s spouse was associated with a significantly reduced risk of dying. Put simply, people with happy spouses (ones who would strongly agree with the statement “I am satisfied with my life”) lived longer than people with unhappy spouses. Importantly, this result remained regardless of the individual’s gender, ethnicity, education level, household income, or sexual orientation.
Researchers at Iowa State University suggest that being kind to others for just 12 minutes may do more to make ourselves feel better. “Walking around and offering kindness to others in the world reduces anxiety and increases happiness and feelings of social connection,” says psychology professor Douglas Gentile, who worked on the new study appearing this week in the Journal of Happiness Studies. Gentile and his team asked student-participants to walk around the campus for 12 minutes, and were each assigned a different mood-boosting strategy. Some students were told to observe others around them and sincerely think to themselves, “I wish for this person to be happy” — called the “loving-kindness” strategy. Others were asked to consider their “interconnectedness” with others, perhaps through mutual friends or classes, or shared emotions. Finally, a third group was asked to make a “downward social comparison” by considering how they might be better than others around them. A control group was told to simply observe others noting appearance, fashion and demeanor, with no instruction on thoughts. Those who practiced loving-kindness and wished other well ended-up happier, more caring, and less anxious than the other groups after the 12 minutes. The interconnectedness group grew more empathetic and caring, while the downward social comparison technique showed no benefit. Indeed, they felt less empathetic, caring and connected than other groups.
A few years ago, Amy Lopes, a veteran fifth-grade teacher in Providence, Rhode Island, learned that teachers at her school could try a mindfulness and yoga training along with their students. Her immediate reaction: “What a bunch of baloney! I said, OK, I’ll try it, but it’s not going to work,” recalled Lopes, who teaches at the William D’Abate Elementary School. “But, within a couple weeks, I just let go and became a learner along with my students, and my whole world has changed.”
A great guest on the radio today on the Dr. Peter Breggin Hour: British psychiatrist Joanna Moncrieff, a leader psychiatric reform in Great Britain and around the world. She will tell us about her psychiatric drug withdrawal project and professional reactions to it as well as potential harms from psychiatric drugs. We will both answer questions about psychiatry in the world today. The program starts at 4 pm NY time. Listen to our great conversation onwww.prn.fm, call in to speak with us at 888 874 4888, and listen to the archives on www.breggin.com.
For older men, faith may have more to do with hormones than the holiness of their lives. A study by researchers at McGill University in Canada found a possible connection between the levels of the sex hormones testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and how religious men are. These findings add to the growing evidence that religiosity is not exclusively influenced by childhood upbringing or psychological makeup; rather, physiological factors could be just as influential. […] “Religion influences a range of cultural and political patterns at the population level. Results from the current study indicate the latter may also have hormonal roots,” explains lead author Aniruddha Das in a news release. “There is therefore a need for conceptual models that can accommodate the dynamic interplay of psychosocial and neuroendocrine factors in shaping a person’s life cycle.”
Electronic books are convenient, but they may not be as beneficial for toddlers’ development as print books, according to a small study. Researchers from the University of Michigan C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital found parents and toddlers interacted more when reading print books together. “Shared reading promotes children’s language development, literacy and bonding with parents,” lead author Tiffany Munzer, M.D., said in a news release. “… We found that when parents and children read print books, they talked more frequently and the quality of their interactions were better.” […] That recommendation was echoed by authors of a related commentary who praised the study for being able to compare experiences within each parent-toddler pair and called for more research on electronic books. “In the meantime, pediatricians should help parents understand that enhancements often found in electronic books will not help child development as much as enhancements provided by parental interaction,” they wrote.
If there are superstar scholars, Berkeley professor Judith Butler is a superstar. She is best known for pioneering the idea that “male” and “female” are merely social constructs. […] I have debated this topic with followers of Butler and Fine in various settings. When I share with them research […] they more often claim that the research must be meaningless because it involved children or adults. […] So let’s study humans before birth. In recent years, there have been fascinating studies in which neuroscientists have studied the brains of babies in their mothers’ wombs. One remarkable study […] found that the biggest female/male difference in gene transcription in the human brain, for many genes, is in the prenatal period. […] if gendered differences in brain and behavior are primarily a social construct, and not hardwired — then we ought to see zero differences between the female brain and the male brain in the prenatal period […] Now we have another, even more, striking study of the human brain prior to birth. In this study, American researchers managed to do MRI scans of pregnant mothers in the second and third trimesters, with sufficient resolution to image the brains of the babies inside the uterus. They found dramatic differences between female and male fetuses. […] They note that others have found, for example, that female infants have significantly greater brain volume in the prefrontal cortex compared with males. They conclude that “It seems likely that these volumetric differences [found after birth] are mirrored by [the] differences observed in the present study.”
It’s Open Mic Wednesday on the Dr. Peter Breggin Hour, 4 pm NY time, March 27, 2019, the last Wednesday of the month. You get to chat with Dr. Breggin and his audience live! Starting at 4 pm, call 888 874 4888 to be on the show! Voice a concern, ask a question or make a comment, and see where it goes from there. You can listen to the show on the PRN app or go to www.prn.fm. Dr. Breggin will start with some spontaneous remarks. If you want to react to them or to start a new subject, it’s all up to you. And remember, you can find hundreds of Dr. Breggin’s archived shows at www.breggin.com.
In a recent study [full], meditating on emptiness led to a 24 percent decrease in negative emotions. Emptiness meditation may be more effective at improving wellbeing than mindfulness meditation, according to psychologists at the University of Derby, UK. Led by psychologist and lecturer William Van Gordon, an international research team conducted the first-ever study to investigate the impact of Buddhist emptiness meditation. A central Buddhist insight, emptiness is the understanding that neither we nor any phenomenon in the universe — sentient or otherwise — has a permanent, separate, and independent core, or soul. […] “In the last few decades, we’ve seen a significant increase of scientific interest in investigating contemplative Buddhist approaches. This really started with a first phase of investigations concerning mindfulness about 20 or 30 years ago. About 10 or 15 years ago there was a second phase concerning compassion and loving kindness. What we’re seeing now is a third phase of investigation focusing on wisdom, emptiness, and non-attachment.”
So-called trigger warnings, which alert viewers and readers to potentially disturbing content, do little to reduce distress, a new study finds. Such warnings are becoming increasingly common, especially at colleges, but there’s little research evaluating their effectiveness, according to the study authors. “We, like many others, were hearing new stories week upon week about trigger warnings being asked for or introduced at universities around the world,” said first author Mevagh Sanson, a psychology researcher at the University of Waikato in New Zealand. “Our findings suggest that these warnings, though well-intended, are not helpful,” Sanson said. [….] However […] “that doesn’t mean trigger warnings are benign. We need to consider the idea that their repeated use encourages people to avoid negative material, and we already know that avoidance helps to maintain disorders such as PTSD,” she said.
The proportion of young people in the United States experiencing mood disorders and other mental health issues has increased significantly over the past 10 years, and researchers found no corresponding increase among older Americans. The findings appear online in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Researchers reported the following findings from their analysis:
The rate of major depression symptoms in the last 12 months increased 52% percent in adolescents (from 8.7% in 2005 to 13.2% in 2017) and 63% in young adults age 18 to 25 (from 8.1% in 2009 to 13.2% in 2017).
The proportion of young adults experiencing serious psychological distress in the previous 30 days jumped 71% (from 7.7% in 2008 to 13.1% in 2017).
The rate of young adults with suicidal thoughts or other suicide-related outcomes rose 47% (from 7.0% in 2008 to 10.3% in 2017).
The study revealed no significant increase in the percentage of older adults experiencing depression or psychological distress. Among adults older than 65, researchers found a slight decline in psychological distress. […] “Young people can’t change their genetics or the economic situation of the country, but they can choose how they spend their leisure time. First and most important is to get enough sleep. Make sure your device use doesn’t interfere with sleep—don’t keep phones or tablets in the bedroom at night, and put devices down within an hour of bedtime,” she said. “Overall, make sure digital media use doesn’t interfere with activities more beneficial to mental health such as face-to-face social interaction, exercise, and sleep.”
Lying is pervasive, according to both seminal research and anecdotal evidence. A 1996 study published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology found that most people lie once or twice a day. That’s about as common as — in the words of a Psychology Today article — how often people brush their teeth. Ironically, 48 percent of children in the United Kingdom lie “occasionally” or “all the time” to their parents about brushing their teeth, based on a study commissioned by dentists behind a toothbrush-tracking app. Thankfully, recent research points to people being honest most of the time. According to the Journal of Language and Social Psychology, a few prolific liars tell the majority of lies. Yet, more questions remain. Why do people lie? What are some of the most common lies? The following sections take a brief look at some of the major topics surrounding dishonesty.
Unlike other types of anxiety disorders, social anxiety disorder appears to have a causal influence on the risk for alcohol use disorder, according to a study published online in Depression & Anxiety. “Many individuals with social anxiety are not in treatment. This means that we have an underutilized potential, not only for reducing the burden of social anxiety, but also for preventing alcohol problems,” said lead author Fartein Ask Torvik, PhD, of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. “Cognitive behavioral therapy with controlled exposure to the feared situations has shown good results.” Dr. Torvik and colleagues came to their findings after interviewing 2801 adult twins in Norway and assessing alcohol use disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and other specific phobias.
Patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of relapse and improving symptoms up to 1 year after treatment. This is according to randomized controlled trial findings published in Psychiatry Research. […] At baseline, all patients were clinically stable and no difference was observed between the 2 groups in terms of antipsychotic medication use to week 62. A significantly higher percentage of patients in the TAU-only group relapsed at the end of the trial vs the CBT plus TAU group (32.5% vs 10%, respectively; P=.044). A similarly higher percentage of patients in the TAU-only group also experienced hospitalization during the study, a finding that trended toward significance (20% vs 7.5%; P =.06). In addition, patients receiving CBT plus TAU had a 25% greater reduction in the PANSS total score compared with the TAU-only group (47.5% vs 25%, respectively; P =.036). A higher number of participants in the CBT group also had a current employment position at 62-week follow-up vs patients in the TAU group (24 vs 15, respectively; P =.044).
The present study aimed to provide preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of a brief CBT intervention focusing on relapse prevention and positive symptom in a Chinese first episode schizophrenia (FES) population. This randomized controlled trial recruited eighty outpatients with FES (as determined using the DSM-IV), aged 16–45 years, and on a current atypical antipsychotic. Patients were randomized to either 10 sessions of individual CBT (intervention group) adjunctive to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU alone (control group). Outcome assessment of symptoms, relapse, hospitalization, insight and social functioning were administered at baseline and then post treatment (10 weeks), and at 6-month and 12-month follow ups. At 12 months, patients in the intervention group had significantly greater improvements in positive symptoms, general psychopathology and social functioning, as well as significantly lower rates of relapse, compared to the control group. Although patients in both groups demonstrated significantly improved negative symptom and insight scores from baseline, no group differences were found.
This RCT demonstrates that FES patient can greatly benefit from CBT designed to target relapse prevention and positive symptom, with improvements sustained for 1 year following treatment.
The number of emergency-room visits linked to cannabis in one hospital in the first US state to completely legalize its use tripled within a few years, according to a study that points to the dangers of ingesting the drug. Colorado legalized marijuana for recreational use in 2014, the first state to do so, making the study published Monday in the Annals of Internal Medicine particularly noteworthy. Nine other states have now legalized cannabis for recreational use, while 34 of the 50 allow its medical use. Researchers analyzed a half-million emergency-department visits at the University of Colorado hospital in Aurora from 2012 to 2016, of which roughly 2,500 were at least partially attributed to marijuana consumption. The number of such visits has increased yearly, from less than 250 in 2012 to more than 750 in 2016.
A new study shows that people suffering from anxiety may be able to successfully transition off of traditional medications to medical marijuana. Nearly half of participants in a recent study successfully stopped using benzodiazepines after beginning medical marijuana treatment. The study participants were made up of 146 anxiety patients. All of them were taking benzodiazepine-based anxiety medications like Ativan, Klonopin, Valium, and Xanax. Researchers found that after six months of using medical marijuana, over 45 percent of participants had completely stopped using their anti-anxiety medication and reported overall better treatment of their symptoms. […] “The opioid crisis gets a lot of air time, but people don’t always realize that behind the [opioid] crisis is benzodiazepine addiction and overuse of antidepressants … By offering a safer alternative like cannabis, we can keep people away from addictive substances.”
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared a 3-minute session protocol, Theta Burst Stimulation, for the NBT System (Nexstim) used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). Previously, the standard protocol time for the therapy was 37 minutes. The Theta Burst Stimulation is a newer form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation that allows for navigation of stimulation to specific areas of the patient’s brain, according to the Company. The new 3-minute NBT protocol was approved based on results from a study of 414 patients with treatment-resistant depression, which found that intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation was non-inferior to high-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Harvard’s School of Public Health recently published important research by Tyler J. VanderWeele and Ying Chen which evidences the positive role played by traditional religion on the development of youth and their health and welfare. The VanderWeele and Chen study analyzed data from more than 5,000 children and concluded that teens with religious or spiritual practices lead happier and healthier lives in their 20s and beyond. […] Concluding that “the effects of a religious community are profoundly positive,” the study states, “there is evidence that religion is an important social determinant of health over life-course.” By setting boundaries and standards for children, “religion provides directives for personal virtue to help maintain self-control and develop negative attitudes toward certain behaviors.” In addition, they conclude that “Peer religious youth groups may be an important source of social support and adult role modeling, and they may be an avenue to direct peer influence on behavioral choices. Religious congregations could also connect adolescents to networks and resources in the broader community.”
Time-out as a method of discipline for toddlers and young children is a hot topic among parents and educators. Is it harmful? Does it damage the attachment bond between parent and child? New research says no. It is still one of the most effective discipline strategies. Research from the University of Sydney has found that the correct use of ‘time-out’ as a form of discipline does not harm a child’s mental health, but rather increases well-being and happiness. The research conducted at the Child Behaviour Research Clinic counters claims in some quarters, including some government advice, that time-out for kids can be dangerous. The lead researcher, Professor Mark Dadds, said parents have nothing to fear from using the technique. “In 30 years, we’ve treated thousands of kids with disruptive behaviour,” said Professor Dadds, of the Child Behaviour Research Clinic based at the University’s Brain and Mind Centre. “When we use time-out as part of a positive parenting program, kids are much happier and much more regulated.”
If you’ve ever struggled with acute or chronic pain, you know how disruptive it can be to your life and well-being. And taking pain-relieving drugs can come with many side effects, including potential addiction. The current opioid crisis in many countries has been largely fueled by an increase in prescriptions to opioid medications for pain control. With this in mind, it’s more important than ever to find alternative ways to relieve pain. The good news is that many different techniques are available to help combat pain — including therapies performed by professionals, as well as practices you can learn on your own.
Teens who choose to spend time alone may know what’s best for them, according to new research that suggests solitude isn’t a red flag for isolation or depression. The key factor is choice, say researchers at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and Wilmington College: When solitude is imposed on adolescents and young adults, whether as punishment or as a result of social anxiety, it can be problematic. But chosen solitude contributes to personal growth and self-acceptance, they found. “Solitude has gotten a lot of bad press, especially for adolescents who get labeled as social misfits or lonely,” said Margarita Azmitia, professor of psychology at UC Santa Cruz and coauthor of a new paper in the Journal of Adolescence. “Sometimes, solitude is good. Developmentally, learning to be alone is a skill, and it can be refreshing and restorative.” […] “We got clear results that are pretty reliable indicators of adaptive versus maladaptive solitude,” said Thomas. Those who seek solitude because they feel rejected or want to retreat into isolation are at greater risk of social anxiety, loneliness, and depression, and they tend to have lower levels of identity development, autonomy, and positive relationships with others. In contrast, those who seek solitude for positive reasons, such as self-reflection or a desire for peace and quiet, face none of these risks.
While there’s debate about whether breakfast really is the most important meal of the day, it seems there could be other benefits, a new study shows. According to new research, teenagers who eat breakfast with their parents regularly are more likely to have a better overall body image of themselves than those who don’t. While breakfast was once lauded as the ‘most important meal of the day’, recent studies have put this up to debate – but it seems there may be another reason why breakfast has its benefits. […] The new study from the University of Missouri (MU) found teenagers who consistently ate a morning meal with their parents were less likely to be affected by the detriments of social media and popular culture, by helping them to form a healthy relationship with food from a young age. […] “Children and adolescents are under a lot of pressure from social media and pop culture when it comes to physical appearance. “Having a healthy relationship with food from eating breakfast and spending meal time with family might have a significant impact on wellbeing,” she adds.
Parents and toddlers who read paper books together speak and interact more compared with those who use e-books, researchers believe. Reading with a child is a hugely important developmental activity as it helps youngsters learn new words, broadens their knowledge, and provides time to bond with loved ones. So scientists wanted to see if parents and children act differently when they read books together using traditional media versus electronic devices like tablets. […] Researchers found parents and toddlers spoke more when interacting with a paper book versus a story on an electronic tablet. What’s more, parents used richer language when using print books compared with tablets, and collaborated more with their children. […] “Parents and toddlers know how to engage over a book, but when adding a tablet into the mix, it deflects from some of the positive benefits of that shared reading experience,” said Munzer.
“Sexy.” “Hard worker.” “Only wants you.” “Understanding and gentle.” “Doesn’t use bad words.” “Cares for kids.” Those phrases could be lifted from an online dating profile, but they are, in fact, the partner preferences offered by the Hadza people of Tanzania, a group of foragers whose traditional way of life is thought to most closely resemble the way all humans lived 10,000 years ago. In a climate of increasing rancor about our political and cultural differences, it’s tempting to emphasize the differences among groups of people. But I think a focus on the positive and deep-rooted traits shared by all humans can help. These traits are shaped by our evolutionary past in order for us live communally, and they include qualities like love and friendship. Humans are not just selfish, tribal, hateful and violent. We owe it to one another, and to ourselves, to understand the powerful and positive forces that unite us not only across so-called tribes within the United States, but across religions and cultures around the world. Even at a time when everything seems to be changing, fundamental ways that humans live together remain constant.
Physical exercise is one of the most reliable ways to improve mood, and this is strongly supported by scientific research. Two new studies published in JAMA Psychiatry continues to suggest that exercise can reduce depression and even help prevent depression. The first study found that more physical activity was associated with better mood, energy, and sleep. […] Exercising in the afternoon was particularly better for mood and energy later on in the day. […] Physical activity and exercise can also prevent depression as well. A second study from researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital examined two large genetic analyses. Researchers found that gene variants associated with being active lowered the risk for depression.
Research suggests that a shoreline walk may offer an extra dose of happiness.
Thanks to a spate of recent studies, there’s growing evidence that being around “blue space”—natural aquatic features such as lakes, rivers, and coastal waters—can be good for our mental health. That may explain why so many of us feel drawn to the water when it’s time for rest and relaxation. […] A 2018 study from Hong Kong showed that people who regularly visited blue spaces in their free time reported greater well-being, compared to those who didn’t make such visits. […] A review of 35 earlier studies, led by researchers at the Barcelona Institute for Global Health, showed that interacting with blue spaces had a positive impact on mental health and stress reduction. […] Some studies have focused on how participating in outdoor aquatic activities (such as fly-fishing, kayaking, and surfing) may help people with specific health challenges (such as post-traumatic stress disorder, drug and alcohol addiction, and breast cancer).
This week, TheAmerican Statistician published a special issue, “Statistical Inference in the 21st Century: A World Beyond p < 0.05,” which includes 43 new papers by leading statisticians. The objective of this issue is “to end the practice of using a probability value (p-value) of less than 0.05 as strong evidence against a null hypothesis or a value greater than 0.05 as strong evidence favoring a null hypothesis.” […] The American Statistician editors sum up the main takeaways and common threads in the 43 papers they’ve compiled:
“Based on our review of the articles in this special issue and the broader literature, we conclude that it is time to stop using the term ‘statistically significant’ entirely. No p-value can reveal the plausibility, presence, truth, or importance of an association or effect. Therefore, a label of statistical significance does not mean or imply that an association or effect is highly probable, real, true, or important. Nor does a label of statistical non-significance lead to the association or effect being improbable, absent, false, or unimportant.”
Wasserstein, Schirm, and Lazar go on to say, “So, let’s do it. Let’s move beyond ‘statistically significant,’ even if upheaval and disruption are inevitable for the time being. It’s worth it. In a world beyond ‘p < 0.05,’ by breaking free from the bonds of statistical significance, statistics in science and policy will become more significant than ever. Regardless of whether it was ever useful, a declaration of ‘statistical significance’ has today become meaningless.”
Ian’s comments: The publishing journal, The American Statistician, is a journal of the American Statistical Association. So its remarkable editorial conclusion to abandon the ‘statistical significance’ criterion cannot be taken lightly. This revolutionary position has been building at the ASA for some years (see for example ASA 2016 and Greenland et al 2016) and here and now is brought to full fruition and backed up by a 40+ paper case against reliance on the p < 0.05 standard, that has been foundational to modern science theory and method. This disruptive opinion also cannot be disregarded as being related to the ‘soft sciences’ (from which opinions against the statistical-significance criterion first gained notoriety, opinion which was highlighted by critics to belittle social sciences as inherently at odds with the rigorous methodologies of science, ha!) because this opinion comes from none other than the top of the field of statistics itself, the very disciple in which ‘statistical significance’ resides.
America has been engulfed by the opioid epidemic for nearly two decades, and today, more people are dying as a result than ever before. From 1999 to 2017, almost as many Americans died of an opioid overdose as died fighting in World War II. While it is more critical now than ever before that we draw attention to this epidemic, the media — and cable news in particular — has continually ignored the magnitude of the issue.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse reported that more than 400,000 Americans have died of an overdose involving opioids since 1999. At its current rate, the opioid epidemic’s death totals are set to surpass the 418,500 American lives lost throughout all of World War II this year alone. If serious action is not taken to combat this crisis, the epidemic may even eclipse the staggering number of causalities from the Civil War by 2025.
So how is cable news covering this generational crisis? Mostly by staying mum. The website Pudding.cool, calculated how often certain words were used on major cable news stations between Aug. 25, 2017, and Jan. 21, 2018. […] Cable news was even more fixated on the Russia investigation, stories of possible collusion, Robert Mueller, and General Flynn. The words “Mueller,” “Flynn,” “Russia,” and “Putin” were said nearly 50,000 times on Fox News, MSNBC, and CNN. In all, the Russia investigation and related matters were discussed nearly eight times as often as the opioid epidemic that’s ravaging our country.
A recent study concluded that children exposed to an infection, like the flu or pneumonia, in the womb had a heightened risk of being diagnosed with autism or depression. The study was recently published in JAMA Psychiatry and involved 1,791,520 children […] The study’s findings include a 79 percent increased risk of being diagnosed with autism and a 24 percent increased risk of being diagnosed with depression for children born to mothers who had an infection while pregnant. The study also found an increased risk of suicide. The authors of the study wrote the following in the conclusions and relevance section: “These findings suggest that fetal exposure to a maternal infection while hospitalized increased the risk for autism and depression, but not bipolar or psychosis, during the child’s life. These results emphasize the importance of avoiding infections during pregnancy, which may impart subtle fetal brain injuries contributing to the development of autism and depression.” […] She also said they should be aware of another recent study involving a possible connection between long-term acetaminophen use (commonly found in the pain-reliever Tylenol) and an ADD or ADHD diagnosis. The following is the authors’ conclusion in that study: “Short-term maternal use of acetaminophen during pregnancy was negatively associated with ADHD in offspring. Long-term maternal use of acetaminophen during pregnancy was substantially associated with ADHD even after adjusting for indications of use, familial risk of ADHD, and other potential confounders.”
A new study in the Clinical Psychological Science journal is reporting that trigger warnings have only “trivial effects” on a person’s mental health, even if that person has been traumatized, and that the warnings are therefore mostly useless. Mevagh Sanson, of the University of Waikato, the paper’s first author, told the Association for Psychological Science: “We, like many others, were hearing new stories week upon week about trigger warnings. . . . Our findings suggest that these warnings, though well intended, are not helpful. […] These results suggest a trigger warning is neither meaningfully helpful nor harmful,” Sanson also told the Association for Psychological Science, adding: “Of course, that doesn’t mean trigger warnings are benign. We need to consider the idea that their repeated use encourages people to avoid negative material, and we already know that avoidance helps to maintain disorders such as PTSD,” Sanson continued. “Trigger warnings might also communicate to people that they’re fragile and coax them interpret ordinary emotional responses as extraordinary signals of danger.” What’s more, this new study is actually kinder to trigger warnings than a study that was conducted by Harvard last year. That study, which I wrote about at the time, actually found that trigger warnings weren’t just useless, they were actually harmful.
Teens and young adults with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, who receive amphetamines such as Adderall for treatment have a higher risk of developing psychosis, compared to those who receive methyphenidates stimulants, such as Ritalin, according to a large new study. […] “We’ve seen cases of people coming in without much of a psychiatric history who are developing this sort of first episode of psychosis in the setting of stimulant use, most commonly Adderall,” said Dr. Lauren Moran, assistant professor at Harvard Medical School, practicing psychiatrist at McLean Hospital, and lead author of the study. Moran said her observations caring for young people experiencing psychosis prompted the research.
The World Happiness Report, an initiative of the United Nations that was just released, showed Americans are spiraling toward gloom with our worst showing since the report was first released in 2012. Today Americans rank 19, wedged somewhere below Finland and above Afghanistan. But why? Theories abound. A penchant toward high risk behaviors. Drug addiction. Gambling. Physical connection void of intimacy. But the culprit most love to hate is social media. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, gaming, texting, emailing, What’s App, YouTube, Vimeo, Snapchat and everything that involves two eyes gazing at a screen. […] Connection today is faster, better and cheaper than ever before in our nation’s history. But how has this technology that created such a vibrant social fabric affected us? Has it made us happier? The fact is this: To be happy and, even more importantly, to thrive, means to feel a connection with your life in a meaningful way that leads to physical, social, and spiritual rewards. To flourish is to grow without boundaries, to be unstoppable in your power, to soar to your heights that resonate deep within you.
Does sugar directly feed cancers, boosting their growth? The answer seems to be ‘Yes’ at least in mice according to a study led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and Weill Cornell Medicine. Their study, published in Science, showed that consuming a daily modest amount of high-fructose corn syrup—the equivalent of people drinking about 12 ounces of a sugar-sweetened beverage daily—accelerates the growth of intestinal tumors in mouse models of the disease, independently of obesity. The team also discovered the mechanism by which the consumption of sugary drinks can directly feed cancer growth, suggesting potential novel therapeutic strategies.
Delusions are one of the most common symptoms of psychosis, but little is known about what causes them. A new study from researchers at Columbia University and New York State Psychiatric Institute offers insight into the development of delusions, which could lead to better treatments for people with psychosis. […] Researchers have long suspected that delusions are caused by alterations in the ability to make inferences, which relies on observable evidence to shape beliefs. However, previous experiments have suggested that other cognitive processes may be involved. […] Using computational modeling, the researchers developed a quantitative framework casting delusions as “sticky” beliefs that evolve in an unusually slow way. This may explain why delusional patients seek more information than non-delusional individuals. […] “Previous work suggested that psychotic patients ‘jump to conclusions,’ but in our study we saw that individuals with more delusional beliefs took more beads from the jar before they made up their minds,” Horga continues. “While participants with schizophrenia jumped to conclusions more than healthy individuals, delusions specifically were associated with slower change in individuals’ beliefs.”
A new large-scale longitudinal study carried out by University of Sussex psychologists has found a clear link between episodes of depression and anxiety experienced by adults in their twenties, thirties and forties, with a decrease in memory function by the time they are in their fifties. The study, published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, is the first of its kind to look at the relationship between depressive symptoms experienced across three decades of early-mid adulthood and a decline in cognitive function in midlife. […] They found that one episode of depression or anxiety had little effect on the memory function of adults in midlife, regardless of which decade it was experienced, but that once the episodes increased to two or three over the course of the three decades, that this predicted a steady decrease in the participant’s memory function by the time they reached fifty.
In the past decade, teens have started spending more time online and less time interacting with friends, reading, and sleeping. They’ve also gotten less happy, according to the newly released World Happiness Report, an annual study sponsored by the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network showing changes in happiness. And generally, writes Jean M. Twenge, a San Diego State University psychology professor who wrote this chapter of the report, teens who spent more time with digital devices were less happy; those who spent more time on other pursuits were happier.
“This creates the possibility that iGen adolescents are less happy because their increased time on digital media has displaced time that previous generations spent on non-screen activities linked to happiness,” she writes. “In other words, digital media may have an indirect effect on happiness as it displaces time that could be otherwise spent on more beneficial activities.”
As an adult, if you are not a frequent reader you aren’t alone. According to one survey, one in four Americans say they haven’t read a book in the past year. That means many people are missing several large health benefits. A 2016 Yale University study looked at more than 3,600 over a period of 12 years to determine the effect reading had on longevity. […] The people who read books more than 3 and 1/2 hours a week were 23 percent less likely to die at a given age compared to people who didn’t read at all. The group that read up to 3 and 1/2 hours a week were 17 percent less likely to die. In the study, people who read newspapers and magazines also had a better survival rate, but it wasn’t as good as the book readers, leading the researchers to conclude that it was partially the immersive nature of books that provided the additional advantage.
Philosophers from Aristotle to the Beatles have argued that money does not buy happiness. But it seems to help. Since 2005 Gallup, a pollster, has asked a representative sample of adults from countries across the world to rate their life satisfaction on a scale from zero to ten. The headline result is clear: the richer the country, on average, the higher the level of self-reported happiness. The simple correlation suggests that doubling GDP per person lifts life satisfaction by about 0.7 points. Yet the prediction that as a country gets richer its mood will improve has a dubious record. In 1974 Richard Easterlin, an economist, discovered that average life satisfaction in America had stagnated between 1946 and 1970 even as GDP per person had grown by 65% over the same period. He went on to find a similar disconnect in other places, too. Although income is correlated with happiness when looking across countries—and although economic downturns are reliable sources of temporary misery—long-term GDP growth does not seem to be enough to turn the average frown upside-down.
Are you really happy? What are the things that make you feel happy? When was the last time you felt like you were at the top of the world? These questions might sound a little childish, but aren’t these the most important questions that everyone should introspect once in a while. On the International Day of Happiness which is celebrated every year on 20th March, let’s escape from our busy schedules and take a moment to ponder on the most trivial topic of our happiness and well being. If we delve deeper into the science of happiness, we will find that there isn’t any clear definition to it. It can vary from person to person and also with the change in situations.
But when you look at the broader aspect, you’ll find that the science to happiness lies in our ability to establish a healthy connection with others, to have a meaningful relationship and in achieving what we want. In your life, you might have come across people who are always ready with an alibi to justify why they were not able to get what they wanted and then there are those who never complain about their hardships and evolve as successful and happy people.
Just for fun, let’s take a look at how far psychiatry will go when a bit of truth escapes from one of its own publications and must be deleted in clumsy desperation. This is not a blog—it is a special event. Something to lighten your day and deepen your cynicism about psychiatry. By now, most people are aware that psychiatry and drug companies cannot be trusted to tell the truth and that they will, at every chance, suppress and censor information that throws a bad light on them and their treatments. Anyone who has not yet learned this can quickly catch up by reading books such as Peter Gøtzsche’s Deadly Psychiatry, Robert Whitaker’s Anatomy of an Epidemic, or my book Medication Madness. …
The content and organization of mental health care have been heavily influenced by the view that mental difficulties come as diagnosable disorders that can be treated by specialist practitioners who apply evidence‐based practice (EBP) guidelines of symptom reduction at the group level. However, the EBP symptom‐reduction model is under pressure, as it may be disconnected from what patients need, ignores evidence of the trans‐syndromal nature of mental difficulties, overestimates the contribution of the technical aspects of treatment compared to the relational and ritual components of care, and underestimates the lack of EBP group‐to‐individual generalizability. A growing body of knowledge indicates that mental illnesses are seldom “cured” and are better framed as vulnerabilities. Important gains in well‐being can be achieved when individuals learn to live with mental vulnerabilities through a slow process of strengthening resilience in the social and existential domains. In this paper, we examine what a mental health service would look like if the above factors were taken into account. The mental health service of the 21st century may be best conceived of as a small‐scale healing community fostering connectedness and strengthening resilience in learning to live with mental vulnerability, complemented by a limited number of regional facilities. Peer support, organized at the level of a recovery college, may form the backbone of the community. Treatments should be aimed at trans‐syndromal symptom reduction, tailored to serve the higher‐order process of existential recovery and social participation, and applied by professionals who have been trained to collaborate, embrace idiography and maximize effects mediated by therapeutic relationship and the healing effects of ritualized care interactions. Finally, integration with a public mental health system of e‐communities providing information, peer and citizen support and a range of user‐rated self‐management tools may help bridge the gap between the high prevalence of common mental disorder and the relatively low capacity of any mental health service.
Even low-level physical activities, such as walking or gardening, are associated with a lower risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer or any cause finds a large observational study published online in the British Journal of Sports Medicine. Higher amounts of activity or more vigorous activities, such as running, cycling and competitive sports, are associated with additional health benefits that are not outweighed by the risks of participating in these activities, the authors say. […] Reductions in risk of death from cancer also corresponded with increasing activity levels. In terms of risk of death from cardiovascular events such as strokes and heart attacks, individuals who were active for 10-59 min/week during their leisure time saw their risk fall by 12%, and those who did 120-299 min/week by 37%, compared with people who were inactive. However, much greater levels of physical activity were not associated with any greater benefits; individuals who were active for 1500 min or more per week had a reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease of 33% – so their risk of death was slightly higher than those who met recommended activity levels but undertaking more moderate amounts.
Have you ever been told to “grow up” in your 20s or need an excuse as to why you still find cat videos on the internet really funny? Well now you might have an official reason as to why you’re not acting like a mature adult. People don’t become fully “adult” until they’re in their 30s, according to brain scientists. […] Professor Peter Jones, from Cambridge University, said: “What we’re really saying is that to have a definition of when you move from childhood to adulthood looks increasingly absurd. “It’s a much more nuanced transition that takes place over three decades.” He added: “I guess systems like the education system, the health system and the legal system make it convenient for themselves by having definitions.”
People are crazy about money. We spend an average of 90,000 hours during our lifetimes earning it, and the rest of our time spending it. Nearly everything we do requires money, from paying the rent and putting food on our tables, to vacation travel and buying those new shoes we’ve been eyeing. There’s no doubt that money is an important force in our psychological lives. It’s one of the most common issues couples fight about, as well as a major factor in divorce. It’s a frequent reason people seek to switch jobs, and it’s the top consideration influencing which jobs they ultimately accept. Given all this fuss, it’s interesting that most people say they believe the old saying “Money doesn’t buy happiness,” at least according to one informal poll. So which is it? Is money an important facet of our psychological well-being or not? According to research, the answer is “both.” Dozens of studies show that money does indeed by happiness. In a recent article published in the journal Nature, for instance, researchers analyzed data on income and well-being from the Gallup World Poll, a representative survey of more than 1.7 million people worldwide. Perhaps not surprisingly, they found that the higher income people reported, the happier they were.
Daily cannabis use, especially of the high potency strains, is linked to an increased risk of developing psychosis, according to new research released Tuesday. The European study, which looked at cannabis use in 11 major cities and Brazil, is the first to show the impact of marijuana use on rates of psychosis, a severe mental condition, in large populations. The link with psychosis was strongest in London and Amsterdam where high potency strains — marijuana which contains over 10 percent THC, the psychoactive component of the drug — are highest and most commonly available. […] “Our findings are consistent with previous studies showing that the use of cannabis with a high concentration of THC, also known as skunk-like cannabis, has more harmful effects on mental health than weaker forms. For the first time we have consistent evidence that there is a dose-dependent relationship between cannabis use and induced psychosis at a population level. The more cannabis you consume the more likely you are to develop a psychotic disorder.”
With many studies linking exercise to a reduced risk of mental health problems such as depression and a better mood, here we round up some of the recent research which shows that being active could make you happier. A small US study found that working out in a group could bring bigger reductions in stress levels and bigger improvements in quality of life than working out alone, even though those who exercised alone worked out for twice as long. A European study which looked at elite and junior elite athletes also found that those who took part in individual sports were more likely to develop symptoms of depression than those who take part in team sports. The researchers explained that as social contact also appears to be a key factor in preventing depression, taking part in team rather than individual sports could also be beneficial.
Researchers claim to have provided the first large-scale quantitative evidence that people are happier in more beautiful surroundings. The study, led by a team from the Data Science Lab at Warwick Business School, The Alan Turing Institute and the University of Sussex, suggests that this effect does not only hold in areas of natural beauty, but in towns and cities as well. […] “Crucially, we show that it is not only the countryside with which we see this association: built-up areas, which might comprise characterful buildings or bridges, also have a positive link to happiness. Therefore, this research could be useful for informing decisions made in the design of our towns, cities and urban neighbourhoods, which affect people’s everyday lives. […] Taken together, our findings demonstrate how crucial it is that planning decisions consider beauty, and that AI may be able to help operationalise this at large scale, helping us ensure that we don’t fail to notice the presence of hidden gems in our built and natural environments.”
Dressed in flowing gold robes, the bald female meditation teacher told us to do nothing. We were to sit silently in our plastic chairs, close our eyes, and focus on our breath. I had never meditated, but I’d gone to church, so I instinctively bowed my head. Then I realized, given that this would last for 15 minutes, I should probably find a more comfortable neck position. This was the first of two meditation sessions of the Kadampa Buddhism class I attended this week near my house, in Northern Virginia, and I did not reach nirvana. Because we were in a major city, occasional sirens outside blasted through the quiet, and because this was a church basement, people were laughing and talking in the hallways. One guy wandered in to ask if this was an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting. The more we focused on our breath, the teacher assured us, the more these distractions would fade away.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a psychological disorder associated with obsessions (recurrent thoughts, such as about germs) and compulsions (repetitive actions, like cleaning).¹ In previous posts, I discussed the nature of OCD, consequences of obsessions and compulsions, the need for control, potential reasons compulsions appear to work, and why we need compulsions to work. Then, in my last article, I began discussing an effective treatment for OCD called exposure and response prevention (ERP). Though other interventions (e.g., psychodynamic therapy, antidepressants) are also used in managing obsessive-compulsive disorder, research shows that ERP is one of the most effective treatments for OCD.² What is exposure and response prevention? Exposure and response prevention is essentially a behavioral technique (some versions also contain cognitive exercises which help identify thinking errors). ERP has two components. The first component requires exposure to a feared situation that an individual with, say, germ worries, has been avoiding (e.g., shaking hands with strangers); the second component requires refraining from engaging in compulsive behavior during or after exposure (e.g., washing thoroughly after shaking hands).
U.S. emergency departments are seeing a surge in the number of kids and teens seeking help for mental health problems, new research warns. Between 2011 and 2015 alone, there was a 28 percent jump in psychiatric visits among Americans between the ages of 6 and 24. “The trends were not a surprise,” said study author Luther Kalb, given that “using the emergency department for mental health reasons has been increasing for a while” among all age groups. But why is it happening among young people? “The rising suicide and opioid epidemics are surely a factor,” given that “the ER plays a critical role in treating overdoses,” he said. […] “There is also an increase in outpatient mental health service use overall among youth in the U.S.,” he noted. “This may lead to a trickle-down effect, where the provider sends the child to the [emergency department] during times of crisis.”
Antidepressants and other drugs for psychiatric conditions are credited with improving and saving countless lives. But what if that’s not the whole story? Today, we get another view from psychiatrist Dr. Peter Breggin, author of “Medication Madness” and director of the International Center for patient-oriented psychiatry. He says his profession has gone mad with medication.
Felice Jacka’s work showing that junk food shrinks the brain was motivated by personal experience. Growing up in Melbourne, Australia, Jacka struggled with anxiety and panic disorders; by the time she enrolled at art school, she was accustomed to regular bouts of depression, too, leaving her “devoid of happy feelings and unable to experience pleasure”. […] “When I first started, people were terribly sceptical – they thought it was just rubbish,” says Jacka. “In psychiatry, people are trained to think about particular molecules in the brain that can be targeted by certain drugs and they’ve lost sight of the bigger picture – the body as a whole complex system.” More than 150 peer-reviewed scientific papers later, Jacka has amassed evidence from all over the world showing that “what we stick in our mouths matters to our mental health”. […] The elephant in the room is the global food industry. “Big Food has completely altered the food environment so that unhealthy foods are the cheapest, most ubiquitous, heavily marketed, [most] difficult to resist and socially acceptable – as a result, the [world’s] health has gone down the toilet.”
Practicing yoga can improve negative self-attitude about one’s physical appearance, according to a new study in the journal Sex Roles that examined college-aged women. Previous studies have found that women who are dissatisfied with their body are at increased risk of developing eating disorders and are more likely to suffer from depression and low self-esteem. […] Women tended to see reductions in body-image dissatisfaction after completing the 12 weeks of yoga. These participants tended to evaluate their appearance more positively, become more satisfied with specific body areas, and decrease the amount of time and energy spent focused on their appearance. […] “yoga is a widely available way for young women to get physical activity and improve body-image dissatisfaction without the barriers and stigma associated with traditional mental health treatment.”
Heart problems have been reported in at least 14 people who were taking sertraline [Zoloft] when they died. Liam Batten, 24, suffered cardiac arrest last July, after taking the common anti-depressant to relieve his anxiety and agoraphobia. He died nine days after his GP changed increased his dose to a higher level, which was still within the recommended range, the Mail on Sunday reported. A post-mortem found that Liam had “elevated” levels of sertraline in his system, at 0.57mg a litre, which could prove fatal, the newspaper reported. But an inquest concluded his death was down to sudden arrythmic death syndrome (SADS), in which the heart stops beating for no specific reason. His dad Shane told the inquest: “I’m just concerned with the medications. Especially for a big lad as well. “Surely it could not be very good for the heart.”
Adults who spend just 20 minutes a day using a smartphone mindfulness training app may feel less lonely and have more social interactions than people who don’t, a small experiment suggests. While mindfulness training has long been linked to reductions in social isolation, much of this research has focused on longer in-person sessions that continue over several weeks or months. With its focus on brief digital training sessions, the current study suggests that group sessions and the social contact that comes from in-person meetings may not be required for people to benefit from mindfulness interventions, said lead author Emily Lindsay, a psychology researcher at the University of Pittsburgh. “Smartphone training is accessible and inexpensive,” Lindsay, who did the study while at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, said by email. “The majority of American adults own smartphones, so the smartphone platform provides an opportunity to learn mindfulness meditation for people who might not have resources for longer, in-person mindfulness training programs,” Lindsay added.
Psychiatric torture is one of the more terrifying methods the Chinese regime uses to rein in those classed as “seriously interfering with public order” and who “disrupt social stability.” Falun Dafa practitioners, political dissidents, and citizens who dare to protest government policies frequently have these labels slapped on them to justify confining them in psychiatric hospitals. The number of mental hospitals was increased across the country after the persecution campaign against Falun Dafa practitioners began in 1999. In September 2004, the Ministry of Public Security issued a public notice requiring provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities to set up psychiatric hospitals as soon as possible if they didn’t have them already. […] In these facilities and other detention centres, authorities forcibly administer psychiatric drugs to Falun Dafa practitioners to destroy their will and force them to “transform” (abandon the practice). This approach is clearly laid out in an internal Party document that states Falun Dafa practitioners “must undergo a medical treatment method,” and “involve drugs when necessary and use medical methods and clinical experimental guidelines to achieve scientific transformation.”
Should your children pick their noses? Should your children eat dirt? Maybe: Your body needs to know what immune challenges lurk in the immediate environment. Should you use antibacterial soap or hand sanitizers? No. Are we taking too many antibiotics? Yes. “I tell people, when they drop food on the floor, please pick it up and eat it,” said Dr. Meg Lemon, a dermatologist in Denver who treats people with allergies and autoimmune disorders. “Get rid of the antibacterial soap. Immunize! If a new vaccine comes out, run and get it. I immunized the living hell out of my children. And it’s O.K. if they eat dirt.” Dr. Lemon’s prescription for a better immune system doesn’t end there. “You should not only pick your nose, you should eat it,” she said. […] “Our immune system needs a job,” Dr. Lemon said. “We evolved over millions of years to have our immune systems under constant assault. Now they don’t have anything to do.” She isn’t alone. Leading physicians and immunologists are reconsidering the antiseptic, at times hysterical, ways in which we interact with our environment. Why? Let us turn to 19th-century London. The British Journal of Homeopathy, volume 29, published in 1872, included a startlingly prescient observation: “Hay fever is said to be an aristocratic disease, and there can be no doubt that, if it is not almost wholly confined to the upper classes of society, it is rarely, if ever, met with but among the educated.”
“Scientific Censorship in Psychiatry” by Robert Whitaker, Science Journalist, Boston. Robert Whitaker is speaking here at the Symposium about Scientific Freedom which is celebrating the inauguration of the Institute for Scientific Freedom. The Institute has three visions: (1) All science should strive to be free from financial conflicts of interest. (2) All science should be published as soon as possible, and made freely accessible. (3) All scientific data, including study protocols, should be freely accessible, allowing others to do their own analyses. The Institute’s primary area of work is healthcare. scientificfreedom.dk and madinamaerica.com
The journal Behavioral and Brain Sciences features several prominent researchers in its latest issue debunking the notion that mental health concerns are “brain disorders.” It begins with a paper by researchers in the Netherlands arguing that neurobiology will never convincingly explain any mental health concerns. The rest of the issue includes dozens of commentaries by influential researchers, some supporting the initial premise, and others attempting to argue against it. In response, the initial study authors point out that none of the responses can provide any convincing evidence that neurobiological reductionism has succeeded in a meaningful way. The lead article and response to the commentaries were written by Denny Borsboom at the University of Amsterdam, Angélique Cramer at Tilburg University, and Annemarie Kalis, at Utrecht University, all in the Netherlands. “None of the commentators appears able to point to convincing evidence that, generically speaking, mental disorders are brain disorders,” they write, “in fact, it seems that most commentators do not even bother. This brings us to the first important conclusion of this response to commentaries: The thesis that mental disorders are brain disorders enjoys no appreciable support.”
Mental health issues have risen significantly over the last decade and the rise of digital media may be one reason why, according to a national survey released Thursday. The research, published by the American Psychological Association, found sharp increases in the number of young adults and adolescents who reported experiencing negative psychological symptoms — specifically in those born in 1995 or later, known as iGen. Coincidentally, the greatest spike in symptoms occurred in 2011, around the same time social media bursts onto the scene. “We found a substantial increase in major depression or suicidal thoughts, psychological distress, and more attempted suicides after 2010, versus the mid-2000s, and that increase was by far the largest in adolescents and young adults,” said lead author Jean Twenge, author of the book “iGen” and professor of psychology at San Diego State University. “These trends are weak or non-existent among adults 26 years and over, suggesting a generational shift in mood disorders instead of an overall increase across all ages.”
Our understanding of mental health – what undermines and what promotes it – is transforming […] Among the most significant sources of influence, long overlooked by our mental health professions, is how the food we consume affects our mental health. Interestingly, new research is confirming the old adage, “you are what you eat.” […] A study from Loma Linda University found that adults who consumed more unhealthy food were also more likely to report symptoms of either moderate or severe psychological distress than their peers who consumed a healthier diet. […] another study of 46,000 people has found that weight loss, nutrient-boosting and fat reduction diets can all reduce the symptoms of depression. That study, from the University of Manchester, combined data from clinical trials of diets for mental health conditions. It found evidence that dietary improvement significantly reduces symptoms of depression […] A new study here joins with previous knowledge about the impact of a largely fruit and vegetable diet upon various measures of physical health – for example, the well-known China study; and ongoing research conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health and the Culinary Institute of America. […] The findings, published in Social Science and Medicine, indicate that eating just one extra portion of fruits and vegetables a day could have an equivalent effect on mental well-being as around 8 extra days of walking a month. According to co-author Peter Howley, “The results are clear: people who do eat more fruit and vegetables report a higher level of mental well-being and life satisfaction than those who eat less. There appears to be accumulating evidence for the psychological benefits of fruits and vegetables.”
Since the late 2000s, the mental health of teens and young adults in the U.S. has declined dramatically. That’s the broad conclusion of a new study published in the Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Between 2009 and 2017, rates of depression among kids ages 14 to 17 increased by more than 60%, the study found. The increases were nearly as steep among those ages 12 to 13 (47%) and 18 to 21 (46%), and rates roughly doubled among those ages 20 to 21. In 2017—the latest year for which federal data are available—more than one in eight Americans ages 12 to 25 experienced a major depressive episode, the study found. The same trends held when the researchers analyzed the data on suicides, attempted suicides and “serious psychological distress”—a term applied to people who score high on a test that measures feelings of sadness, nervousness and hopelessness. Among young people, rates of suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts all increased significantly, and in some cases more than doubled, between 2008 and 2017, the study found. […] While not all the evidence is consistent, a substantial amount of research has found associations between heavy technology use and poor mental health outcomes among adolescents and young adults. Research aside, many parents, teachers, guidance counselors and others who work with young people say social media and heavy technology use are a problem. The way young people communicate and spend their leisure time “has fundamentally changed,” Twenge adds. “They spend less time with their friends in person and less time sleeping, and more time on digital media.”
As research attests, experiencing negative emotions can result in more than “hating everybody and everything.” Negative moods can impair our associative memory, alter our judgments of others by making us more prone to stereotyping and forming less favorable impressions, and even lead us to feel more pain. Negative emotions, it seems, may also make us more distrustful. In a new study published in Science Advances, an international team of researchers from the University of Amsterdam and the University of Zurich set out to explore what effect negative emotions have on trust. Trust is among the most cardinal of social lubricants. From families to governments, it is deeply woven into the very fabric of human societies. Which makes it even more crucial to understand the mechanisms of trust – what feeds it and what erodes it. As new research shows, negative emotions might make us less trusting. Even if these emotions are incidental and are triggered by situations that are unrelated to our present circumstances. […] The results showed that when feeling anxious, the participants trusted other players much less and, hence, invested less of their money.
In a nationwide analysis, patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were at higher risk for developing depression and anxiety compared with individuals without chronic rhinosinusitis, according to a study published in JAMA Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery. The investigators of this retrospective study sought to examine the association between chronic rhinosinusitis and the risk for developing depression and anxiety in a nationwide cohort. Furthermore, the associated risk for mental health problems was assessed according to phenotype: chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. […] The investigators suggest that chronic rhinosinusitis regardless of phenotype is associated with an increased incidence of depression and anxiety. However, patients with phenotype chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps were considered at higher risk for developing depression and anxiety than those with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.
Cancer patients who have been hospitalised for mental health problems prior to their cancer diagnosis were 73% more likely to die from their cancer compared to those who had never had psychiatric help, according to new research published in the British Journal of Cancer. The study of more than 675,000 cancer patients from Ontario, Canada, looked at those who had been diagnosed with one of the 10 most common cancers. Nearly half of all the cancer patients had undergone a psychiatric assessment as an outpatient, often by a GP. Around 7,900 cancer patients had either been treated as an emergency and more than 4,000 had been hospitalised for their mental health in the five years prior to their cancer diagnosis. […] “A recent psychiatric history should be a red flag to all doctors and nurses treating cancer patients. It’s essential we keep a close eye on these patients to make sure they’re receiving the best possible care and are followed up if and when cancer appointments are missed.”
Pharmaceutical companies are under the spotlight with congressional hearings on the cost of drug prices and allegations of the industry’s role in the opioid crisis. Dr. Raeford Brown, a pediatric anesthesia specialist at the UK Kentucky Children’s Hospital and chair of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Committee on Analgesics and Anesthetics, has been openly critical of big pharma and the lack of proper oversight from the FDA. Despite many politicians, particularly declared presidential candidates, beginning to speak out against big pharma, Brown does not think that anything will come out of it “because Congress is owned by pharma. The pharmaceutical industry pours millions of dollars into the legislative branch every single year,” he told Yahoo Finance. “In 2016, they put $100 million into the elections. That’s a ton of money.”
I have sleep on the mind this week — and not just because I lost an hour of it this weekend to daylight saving time. People in the developed world are sleeping less than they used to. In the US, one 2015 study found the age-adjusted mean sleep duration was 7.18 hours, down from 7.4 hours in 1985. That’s why the premise of a new study in Nature Human Behavior is so intriguing. Published this week, the study argues that getting less sleep makes us less prosocial — less inclined to vote, to donate money to charity, to sign petitions. […] It turns out that Americans living “near the immediate eastern side of the US time-zone boundaries have been shown to achieve a significant 20–25 minutes less sleep per night (on average) than those living near the immediate western side of the same time-zone boundary.” That’s a terrifying, startling statistic — does an arbitrary choice of time really affect us that profoundly One source for the finding is a different regression discontinuity analysis, published in 2017, which explains: “In counties lying on the eastern (right) side of a time zone boundary, sunset time occurs an hour later than in nearby counties on the opposite side of the boundary. More generally the onset of daylight is delayed by an hour. … Because of the delayed onset of daylight and the biological link between environmental light and the production of melatonin throughout the day, individuals on the late sunset side of a time zone boundary will tend to go to bed at a later time.”
Infants who have multiple moderate-to-severe regulatory problems have more than 10 times the odds of experiencing mental health problems during childhood, and these problems worsen over time. In a large, prospective, community-based Australian study published in Pediatrics, Fallon Cook, PhD, from the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues examined the profiles of infant regulatory behaviors and associated familial and child characteristics. In the present study, the investigators included 1759 12-month-old infants who were of average birth weight, with 50% being male and 50% being firstborn infants. Participating mothers completed the Kessler 6 Psychological Distress Scale (K6), with scores ≥8 indicating significant psychological distress. Mothers reported the presence and severity of children’s sleep problems, excessive crying, temper tantrums, and mood swings. Participating mothers also noted whether their infants coughed, choked, or gagged on foods of various textures.
Acadia Pharmaceuticals is facing a Department of Justice probe over marketing practices related to its controversial Parkinson’s drug Nuplazid (pimavanserin). The investigation was disclosed in an SEC document and was first reported by CNN. In the filing, the company said it had received a civil investigative demand from the DOJ asking for documents under the False Claims Act. […] As of April 2018, more than 700 deaths linked to Nuplazid had been reported to an FDA adverse events database since the drug’s approval in 2016. As a result, the FDA conducted an additional evaluation of Nuplazid, but didn’t find any new safety issues with the drug. Like other atypical antipsychotics, Nuplazid contains a “black box” warning that those with Parkinson’s disease taking the drug have a higher risk of death.
The findings of a recently published new study, led by the University of Bristol and described as the first of its kind in Britain, indicate that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has far-reaching beneficial effects on the mental health and well-being of university students. […] The far-reaching benefits of meditation and mindfulness, long recognized by many spiritual traditions, have been gaining increasing traction in the West in recent years, both within and outside the Buddhist world. Perhaps nowhere is this positive impact being more keenly felt, and with the greatest potential to improve the future, than at the growing number of schools that are incorporating these practices into their daily curriculums. “Recent evidence suggests that university students are more likely to develop mental health problems when compared with the general population,” the University of Bristol said in a report. “The . . . study aimed to establish whether mindfulness could be effective at improving mental health and wellbeing in medical students who are considered more at risk of developing a stress-related illness.” […] “We have developed a theoretical model of the medical student ‘stress signature,’ mapping how mindfulness-based cognitive therapy can break the cycle of specific vulnerability through the development of new coping strategies,” said Dr. Malpass. (University of Bristol).
A cutting-edge blood test discovered by Indiana University School of Medicine researchers could help more accurately diagnose military veterans and other people experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder, and potentially provide more precise treatments and prevention. A study led by psychiatry professor Alexander Niculescu, MD, PhD, and published this week in the high-impact Springer Nature journal Molecular Psychiatry, tracked more than 250 veterans in over 600 visits at the Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center in Indianapolis to identify molecules in the blood that can help track stress intensity. The researchers used a careful four-step approach of discovery, prioritization, validation and testing. According to Niculescu’s findings, the blood test can accurately identify people who are at risk of stress disorders or are experiencing them severely.
On the heels of the American Psychological Association’s new Guidelines for the Psychological Practice with Boys and Men,1 Gillette released an ad (“We Believe: The Best Men Can Be”).2 Both the ad and the guidelines were clearly intended to work toward ending male violence and the objectification of women, but both have been the subject of significant backlash. On YouTube, as of March 10, 2019, the Gillette ad garnered almost twice as many “dislikes” (1.4 million) as “likes” (778,000). The Egard Watch Company even created a counterpoint video “dedicated to all those [men] who sacrifice everything to make the world safer and better for all of us.”3 […] Psychologist Chris Ferguson, a member of the APA who reviewed the draft guidelines before they were finalized, warned the authors that they were portraying traditional men as “nearly monstrous, their cultural values associated with everything from sexism to promiscuity to their own declining health (which essentially places blame on them, something we generally try to avoid with other groups).” He added, “Probably the document’s main weakness is that much of it, instead of reading as an actual practice guideline, tends to read as an invective against ‘traditional’ masculinity.”6 Psychiatrist Sally Satel wrote in the Washington Post, “when the APA encourages practitioners to engage in vaguely defined activities — ‘address issues of privilege and power related to sexism’ or ‘help boys and men, and those who have contact with them become aware of how masculinity is defined in the context of their life circumstances’ — it seems more focused on a political agenda than on the patient.”7 […] This could have been avoided. In 2015, social psychologists Duarte, Crawford, Stern, Haidt, Jussim, and Tetlock, in their article Political diversity will improve social psychological science,8 describe the same problems in social psychology that these APA guidelines seem to expose in the clinical field. A lack of political diversity can undermine any field’s validity by embedding ideological values into research questions and methods, and playing into the confirmation bias. This produces both conclusions that are ideologically skewed and mischaracterizations of alternative views. When political diversity is embraced, on the other hand, “institutional disconfirmation” defeats confirmation biases because they are canceled out in the process of everyone grappling with one another’s concerns. If the authors of the guidelines had taken seriously the concerns that Ferguson brought them, their guidelines could have been revised to be empirical instead of ideological, and may have been more widely embraced.
Depression is a debilitating disease that has been associated with an increased risk for a variety of cardiovascular disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease, and their subsequent complications, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. […] Psychiatry Advisor had the opportunity to discuss the relationship between depression, antidepressant use, and AF [atrial fibrillation] with Parveen K. Garg, MD, MPH, Division of Cardiology at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine in Los Angeles. […] What’s particularly interesting about our study is that individuals who used antidepressants were found to have a similarly increased risk for AF as those who had high CES-D scores. So our findings raise important questions regarding whether antidepressants may have proarrhythmic properties, as prior literature has suggested, that may mitigate any benefit associated with an improvement in depressive symptoms. […] Following our publication, a European study reported a similar correlation between AF and depression but really focused on the association with antidepressant use.6 In the study, antidepressant treatment was associated with a three-fold higher risk for AF during the first month, with risk gradually attenuated over the following year. Most notably, the risk for developing AF was highest in the month before starting antidepressants. Further studies are needed in larger cohorts that are appropriately powered to detect significant interactions and with more comprehensive and clinically validated assessments of depression. Additionally, once a diagnosis of depression is established, a better understanding of how antidepressant medication or other therapeutic interventions might then modify the risk for subsequent AF is also needed.
The popular and expensive spice saffron (Crocus sativus L), appears to be as effective as the stimulant methylphenidate (MPH) in treating symptoms in youngsters with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), new research suggests. In a randomized 6-week trial, a team of investigators from Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran, found there were no significant differences in efficacy or adverse events in the saffron vs MPH group.
Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood and adolescence. About 30% of patients do not respond to stimulants or cannot tolerate their side effects. Thus, alternative medication, like herbal medicine, should be considered. The aim of this trial is to compare the safety and efficacy of Crocus sativus (saffron) versus methylphenidate [Ritalin] in improving symptoms of children with ADHD. […] Discussion This study provides evidence for satisfactory outcomes with saffron in treatment of ADHD. In this double-blind randomized trial of C. sativus versus methylphenidate in treatment of ADHD, C. sativus was as effective as methylphenidate. The clinical relevance of these findings was emphasized by improvements seen in both Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores. Also C. sativus was safe and showed equally or lesser adverse effects. […] Conclusion The results of this study must be considered as preliminary. This 6-week course of treatment with saffron showed the same efficacy as methylphenidate in children with ADHD. In terms of safety, there is no significant difference between the two study groups in frequency of side effects. Considering the memory-enhancing and antidepressant effects of saffron, future studies on the effectiveness of saffron compared with placebo should include a broader spectrum of ADHD patients, including those with comorbid mood and anxiety disorders, sleep problems, and ADHD patients with inattentive presentation. Nevertheless, larger “placebo-controlled studies” with longer treatment periods are indicated for future studies.
Johnson & Johnson was the “kingpin” that fueled the country’s opioid crisis, serving as a top supplier, seller and lobbyist, according to a state official leading the legal fight against the companies that helped create the crisis. Why it matters: Purdue Pharma, which makes OxyContin, has been the main target so far in lawsuits. But court documents show attorneys general also are trying to cast a wider net, drawing more attention to J&J’s role in the global opioid market. Driving the news: The first big trial of the opioid epidemic is set to begin in May in Oklahoma. It will set the stage for similar litigation in other states, as well as the consolidated nationwide lawsuit that has been compared to the tobacco litigation of the 1990s.
Humor can help decrease negative emotional reactions in people vulnerable to depression, according to new research published in the journal Brain and Behavior. The findings offer preliminary evidence that humor could be an effective emotion regulation strategy. “I spent many years working with depressed patients and this made me realize important it is to provide vulnerable people with evidence-based tools for dealing with negative emotional experiences. Indeed, in some vulnerable people, even a slightly lowered mood can escalate into clinical depression, and the main factor that underlies this process is impaired ability to regulate negative emotions,” explained study author Anna Branieck […] When participants were asked to make a humorous comment, they tended to report less negative emotions and more positive emotions after viewing the picture. “These findings may have practical value mostly for people at risk for depression, in particular for those who have already experienced a depressive episode in the past, because they are in the highest-risk group for further depression,” Braniecka told PsyPost.
I never even needed to be on that pill is all I could keep telling myself, feeling weak and ashamed. There are so many other coping mechanisms I could have used for my anxiety. Why didn’t I do my own research? What was I thinking?! Why did I trust the doctors? These thoughts went over and over in my head after I had finally cracked the code and figured out what was causing my horrific and bizarre symptoms. Why will the medical doctors not admit it? Why does the psychiatrist just want me to take more drugs and doesn’t believe a word I say? It’s all over the internet and so many have told their horror stories on countless forums. I thought I was going to die or go insane. For a while, I even thought that I could have quite possibly been under spiritual attack.
A recent editorial, published inEpidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, makes an argument for getting rid of the schizophrenia diagnosis, listing five reasons for the change, five signals of change, five challenges of change, five promises of change, and five steps for change. The authors argue that changing the name for schizophrenia is a necessary step to modernize psychiatry and mental health services worldwide. “Renaming a particular form of mental suffering should be accompanied by a broader debate of the entire diagnosis-evidence-based-practice (EBP)-symptom-reduction model as the normative factor driving the content and organization of mental health services that may be detached from patients’ needs and reality, overlooks the trans-syndromal structure of mental difficulties, appraises the significance of the technical features over the relational and ritual components of care, and underestimates the lack of EBP group-to-individual generalizability,” write the authors, Sinan Guloksuz and Jim van Os.
Is “mental illness” a fraudulent concept for locking up social deviants? Or does forced treatment free the ill “from the Bastille of their psychosis?” […] This story looks at the history of mental illness, institutionalization, and the role of coercion in psychiatry. It features an array of voices and viewpoints, including Linda Mayo, the mother of twin daughers with severe psychiatric diagnoses, who advocates for court-ordered psychiatric treatment; Richard Krzyzanowski, a patients’ rights advocate who fights against coercive treatment laws; DJ Jaffe, the founder of Mental Illness Policy Org., who argues that the state should make it much easier to commit mental patients; the late Thomas Szasz, a controversial libertarian psychiatrist who fought compulsory treatment and questioned the very existence of mental illness; and Scott Zeller, a psychiatrist who’s developed a new model that he hopes will reduce coercion in the system.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity and involves dysregulated dopaminergic pathways. Dopaminergic agents (i.e., amphetamine and methylphenidate) are thus prescribed to treat ADHD. As little is known regarding long-term consequences of either ADHD or its treatment, the objective of this study was to determine if either alters the risk of diseases of the basal ganglia and cerebellum, including Parkinson’s disease. Statewide medical records from 1996 to 2016 were retrieved from the Utah Population Database to conduct a retrospective cohort study. […] Patients with ADHD (N = 31,769) had a 2.4-fold increased risk of basal ganglia and cerebellum diseases (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0–3.0; P < 0.0001) compared with 158,790 non-ADHD persons, after controlling for sex and age and adjusting for tobacco use and psychotic conditions. In 4960 ADHD patients prescribed psychostimulants, risk of basal ganglia and cerebellum diseases between ages 21 and 49 years was especially pronounced, at 8.6-fold (95% CI: 4.8–15.6; P < 0001). The association of ADHD patients prescribed psychostimulants with higher risk of diseases of the basal ganglia and cerebellum may reflect a more severe ADHD phenotype rather than a direct association between prescribed stimulant use and basal ganglia or cerebellum disorders. Future studies to assess and stratify patient risk so as to inform treatment are warranted.
Given that today’s work environment allows for round-the-clock access to work, it’s no surprise that more and more people are clocking in longer hours. However, those long hours are now being connected to mental health concerns, particularly in women. An observational study published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health reports that women who worked 55 hours or more a week and/or who worked most/every weekend experienced significantly more depressive symptoms than women working standard hours. “There’s something called ‘weisure’ that refers to people not having a work-life balance, where they work and grab moments of leisure when they can,” Deborah Serani, PsyD, professor of psychology at Adelphi University in Garden City, New York, told Healthline. “We’ve seen this since the internet and cell phones and how they really negatively impact mental health because you don’t get to reboot, you don’t get to refuel.”
Daylight saving time arrives this weekend, which means it’s once again time to move the clocks ahead an hour. The change, which takes effect at 2 a.m. this Sunday, will cost millions of Americans an hour of sleep and leave many of us feeling extra groggy. Health experts say there can also be some more serious consequences. “The main impact of daylight savings time is the loss of sleep and the need to ‘shift’ the timing of sleep after the clocks change. This has two consequences,” Dr. M. Safwan Badr, a pulmonologist at DMC’s Detroit Receiving Hospital, told CBS News. “First, missing an hour of sleep makes people sleepy, especially if their sleep time is already short the week before. Furthermore, It takes most people several nights to shift their circadian rhythms and get their sleep back on track.” […] “Plan ahead. Allow time to adjust. Stick to healthy sleep habits. Reset your clocks Saturday afternoon, and if you are sleepy, go to bed a little early Saturday evening,” Badr said. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends the following tips to reduce the health effects of daylight saving time:
What if you could make money, or type something, just by thinking about it? It sounds like science fiction, but it might be close to reality. In as little as five years, super smart people could be walking down the street; men and women who’ve paid to increase their intelligence. Northwestern University neuroscientist and business professor Dr. Moran Cerf made that prediction, because he’s working on a smart chip for the brain. “Make it so that it has an internet connection, and goes to Wikipedia, and when I think this particular thought, it gives me the answer,” he said. Cerf is collaborating with Silicon Valley big wigs he’d rather not name. Facebook also has been working on building a brain-computer interface, and SpaceX and Tesla CEO Elon Musk is backing a brain-computer interface called Neuralink. “Everyone is spending a lot of time right now trying to find ways to get things into the brain without drilling a hole in your skull,” Cerf said. “Can you eat something that will actually get to your brain? Can you eat things in parts that will assemble inside your head?”
A new study, to be presented at the upcoming American Academy of Neurology’s 71st Annual Meeting in Philadelphia, reveals a connection between sleep apnea and increased levels of a toxic brain protein commonly associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These findings bolster the growing body of evidence linking sleep problems with the onset of neurodegenerative conditions. It is becoming increasingly clear that sleep plays an incredibly important role in our overall cognitive health. Disrupted sleep has long been associated with dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, however scientists have only recently started to unpack exactly how bad sleep is linked with cognitive decline. This new study examined the link between increased levels of tau and episodes of stopped breathing during sleep. Tau is one of two proteins strongly implicated in the neurodegenerative effects associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
A team of researchers set out to investigate the driving force behind prosocial behavior across large societies throughout history and how religion may have influenced this behavior. The experts determined that the belief in a god that was capable of punishment played an important role in cooperation. “The emergence of large-scale cooperation during the Holocene remains a central problem in the evolutionary literature,” wrote the study authors. “One hypothesis points to culturally evolved beliefs in punishing, interventionist gods that facilitate the extension of cooperative behavior toward geographically distant co-religionists. Furthermore, another hypothesis points to such mechanisms being constrained to the religious ingroup, possibly at the expense of religious outgroups.” […] The study revealed that people were more likely to allocate a bigger share of coins to themselves or to others members of their own religion. However, individuals who strongly believed in a punitive god made much more equitable decisions. The researchers said this also represents interactions that have taken place on a societal scale throughout history. “These results provide support for the hypothesis that beliefs in monitoring and punitive gods help expand the circle of sustainable social interaction, and open questions about the treatment of religious outgroups,” wrote the study authors.
Prescription drugs such as benzodiazepines are implicated in the majority of deaths by overdose, according to data compiled by the Health Research Board. By contrast, just 5 per cent of drug-related deaths are among people who inject drugs. The figures are contained in the National Drug-Related Deaths Index for 2016, which gathers data on deaths due to overdose as well as deaths among drug users due to causes such as cardiac arrest or hanging. Overall, prescription drugs were linked to seven out of 10 deaths, or 238, by overdose in 2016. […] Benzodiazepines were the most common prescription drug group implicated in these deaths. Deaths linked to pregabalin, a drug used to treat epilepsy and anxiety, have risen significantly, with an increase of 33 per cent between 2015 and 2016, from 49 to 65. […] In all, there were approximately 21,300 of potential life years lost because of drug-related deaths during the 12-month period.
Things got nasty for Magie Serpica when she decided to quit Zoloft. Serpica, a 38-year-old tattoo artist from West Brighton […] Zoloft in particular, she says, caused her to gain weight, and it was making her joints hurt. So she decided to go off the meds, following general guidelines for tapering — and was met with a litany of unpleasant symptoms, including nausea, extreme fatigue and a jarring phenomenon called “brain zaps,” which Serpica describes as a jolt to the brain. “I remember having thoughts of, ‘Is this ever going to end?’” Serpica tells The Post. “I feel like doctors downplay withdrawal symptoms.” A new paper suggests that her concerns are warranted […] British psychiatrists Dr. Mark Horowitz and Dr. David Taylor argue that the standard recommendation for tapering off antidepressants — about four weeks under a physician’s guidance — is wildly misguided. They believe tapering should take months, not weeks, and consist of ever-smaller doses. […] “If I had known coming off of Zoloft would be this hard, I’m not sure I would have started,” says Serpica, who hopes sharing her struggle will prevent others from making hasty decisions about their mental health.
Green spaces and colourful urban design elements may lead to higher levels of happiness, greater trust of strangers and environmental stewardship than locations without those amenities, a study has found. The study, published in the journal Cities and Health, suggests that simple, inexpensive urban design interventions can increase well-being and social connections among city residents. “The urban design interventions we studied are relatively simple and low-cost, but show great potential to improve individuals’ emotional and social lives,” said Hanna Negami, a PhD candidate at the University of Waterloo in Canada. “Something as simple as adding greenery to a concrete lane or painting a rainbow crosswalk could help to enrich urban public spaces,” Negami said. […] “We know that the design of a city has direct, measurable, psychological impact on its citizens,” says Colin Ellard, a professor at the University of Waterloo. “We have been able to show how such impact can be measured and what it can tell us about good, psychologically sustainable design,” Ellard said.
You don’t need to do meditation everyday in order to benefit from it. If you devote a period of time to learning meditation skills, you can then roll them out when relevant situations come up. I’m not a very regular meditator but these are situations in which I use it. […] It’s very useful for new meditators to meditate daily for 30 days to get the hang of it. You don’t have to do long sessions of it. I often only meditate for 3 to 5 minutes, so it’s fine to stick with this on most of your practice days. Once you feel familiar with meditation you can pick it up as and when you want. Check out this post on meditation for beginners to get started. That article outlines a 10 minute walking meditation, which is a nice one to try. Try guided meditations. Googling “meditation mp3” will yield lots of results and here are some I recommend. When you listen to meditations, try not to get hung up on things like “I don’t like this person’s voice” or “I hear some crackle in the audio.” Being able to experience and let go of thoughts like that is part of developing meditation skills. If you find you don’t like longer guided meditations, that’s fine. You can stick to the short, self-directed kind.
A Pew Research Center study found that 51 percent of adults who attend religious services at least once a month reported drinking alcohol in the last month, compared to 62 percent who attend services less often or not at all. Additionally, 13 percent of people attending services monthly report binge drinking, while 21 percent who attend less often report binge drinking, defined as having four or more drinks on a single occasion. People of certain religions were less likely to be drinkers than others. As a whole, Protestants were less likely to have consumed alcohol than Catholics. Sixty percent of Catholics and 51 percent of Protestants reported drinking in the last 30 days. While 15 percent of Protestants reported binge drinking, 17 percent of Catholics reported the same. […] People with no religious affiliation are the most likely to drink and binge drink. Among those unaffiliated, people who are agnostic, claiming neither faith nor disbelief in God, are most likely to drink and binge drink, at 76 and 33 percent, respectively.
A new piece of research has offered up an effective strategy to help people come off antidepressants without suffering ‘severe’ withdrawal symptoms. In a study published in The Lancet, a pair of medical researchers warned that ‘all classes of drug that are prescribed to treat depression’ can cause withdrawal so serious it ‘might compel patients to recommence their medication’. This could lead people to think their mental health has taken a turn for the worse make them start popping pills again. ‘Although the withdrawal syndrome can be differentiated from recurrence of the underlying disorder, it might also be mistaken for recurrence, leading to long-term unnecessary medication,’ the authors wrote. […] ‘We therefore suggest that SSRIs should be tapered hyperbolically and slowly to doses much lower than those of therapeutic minimums, in line with tapering regimens for other medications associated with withdrawal symptoms. ‘Withdrawal symptoms will then be minimised.’
Most folks treated in a U.S. emergency room for misuse of prescription medications get into trouble because they mix different substances, a new study reports. Benzodiazepines like Xanax (alprazolam) and Ativan (lorazepam) are most commonly implicated in health crises that lead to an ER visit, followed by prescription opioids, researchers found. But in most cases, the patients fell ill because these drugs were taken with other substances and created a dangerous interaction, said lead researcher Dr. Andrew Geller. He’s a medical officer with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s medication safety team. “Most of the time there may have been only one pharmaceutical involved, but there were other non-pharmaceutical substances or psychoactive drugs or alcohol involved as well,” Geller said. “When people get into trouble with misusing medicines, they’re usually taking more than one substance.”
Methylphenidate (MPH), the first-line medication in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is associated with increased risk of sleep disorders. Melatonin has both hypnotic and chronobiotic properties that influence circadian rhythm sleep disorders. This study explores the effectiveness of melatonin in children with ADHD who developed sleep problems after starting MPH. […] Conclusion: In children with ADHD with sleep problems after receiving MPH treatment, melatonin may be an effective and safe treatment, irrespective of gender, age and comorbidities.
New research is showing a relationship between food and your mood. If you are thinking of cutting back on meat, you might not get just a body benefit — you might get a brain benefit too. This study in the British Medical Journal says a plant-based diet might hold the secret to more happiness. In this study, researchers were looking at those who have a higher disposition toward depression: those with type 2 diabetes. After reviewing 11 studies with more than 400 participants, those who ate either a plant-based diet or went completely vegan were found to have improved moods compared to those who did not eat this way. They found that depression symptoms went down within about seven months of eating this way. It’s not known why eating this way may have reduced depression symptoms. It may be that good health habits are contagious, meaning if you cut back on, for example, burgers do you also cut back on french fries? Or do you start giving your body nutrients you need in fruits and vegetables that we know play a role in your emotional health?
The U.S. Food & Drug Administration Tuesday approved Johnson & Johnson’s ketamine-derived nasal spray Spravato for treatment-resistant depression. The green light means ketamine—an anesthetic abused as a party drug but promoted by some doctors without FDA approval as a necessary treatment for the most severely depressed patients—has spawned the first materially new depression treatment in decades. […] To dissuade abuse and address safety concerns, Johnson & Johnson is requiring patients receiving Spravato to go to a certified facility and administer the nasal spray to themselves under the supervision of a healthcare professional twice a week for a month, then once a week or every other week on an ongoing basis. […] As much as people with treatment-related depression need better options, the clinical trials on esketamine have not been uniformly positive. In a memo to the FDA advisory committee that voted to approve esketamine 14-2 with one abstaining on February 12, Tiffany R. Farchione, acting director of the FDA’s Division of Psychiatry Products, noted that the phase-3 clinical trial evidence supporting approval of esketamine came from one short-term study with a flexible dose and a randomized withdrawal study, when most approved antidepressants have at least two positive short-term trials. Another short-term study with designated doses did not demonstrate that esketamine helped patients more than a placebo.
I have posted a new response on Mad in America to my colleagues who still think there must be some place for ECT in “extreme cases” and that surely “some people” have been helped or “back in my training I saw two patients who were helped.” Find my new March 3, 2019 blog here. For my Frequent Alert readers, I want to make an additional suggestion of what you might say to someone who defends ECT even the slightest little bit. When dealing with someone who fancies themselves knowledgeable or even a professional in the mental health field, and who defends ECT, you might say something like this:
Many of us think of exercise as something we need to bribe ourselves to do. But maybe we’ve got it all wrong. An enjoyable workout can be intrinsically rewarding, just like tasty food is, according to a study published in the February issue of Physiology & Behavior. In rodents, scientists had already shown that exercise can be powerfully rewarding, says study coauthor Hans-Peter Kubis, a senior lecturer in sport and exercise science at Bangor University in Wales. Rats and mice will not only use running wheels without prompting. They’ll actually learn to work to gain access to the running wheels, and they’re vocal about their eagerness to get moving. “One study showed that rats, which had been given restricted daily access to wheel running, emitted 50 kHz calls in anticipation of and during running,” Kubis says. “These calls are known to signal a positive affective state usually seen in the context of food rewards and social play.” […] On a personal level, these are some things you can do to help maximize the reward potential of exercise:
Women who take oral contraceptives have a harder time recognizing emotions like pride or contempt in other people’s faces in comparison to women who aren’t on birth control, new study shows. Slowly but surely, scientists are finding out more about the subtler side effects of taking the pill. One group of German researchers now ran emotional recognition tests with two groups of healthy women, 42 of whom were on the pill, and 53 who weren’t. They found that the women on the pill were about 10 percent worse on average at reading what the scientists called “more complex” emotions like pride and contempt. In their study in the journal Frontiers in Neuroscience, the scientists didn’t notice any effect in women being able to spot what they categorized as “more simple” emotions, like happiness or fear. […] As for the impact of his findings, Lischke will also look into how the pill’s potential emotionally impairing side effect could play out in women’s intimate relationships in a future study. But for now, he asks women to not be concerned: “On the basis of present findings there is no need for women to worry about oral contraceptive use leading to impairments in emotion recognition and deleterious effects on their social lives.”
It’s been said that there are no atheists in foxholes, but a new study led by Joseph Henrich has shown that the impact of war on religion extends well beyond the front lines. The chair of the Department of Human and Evolutionary Biology, Henrich and a team of international collaborators gathered survey data from several locations around the globe and found that, following the trauma of seeing a friend or loved one killed or injured during conflict, many became more religious. The study is described in a Jan. 28 paper published in Nature Human Behavior. “I became interested in this question through my prior work, which has been focused on how religious beliefs can cause people to cooperate more in a group,” Henrich said. “The idea is that if you can expand the sphere of cooperation, then that group can more successfully compete against others, sometimes even through violent conflict. “But this study suggests that this could lead to a vicious circle,” Henrich continued. “If you receive a war shock and become very religious, and then begin to outcompete other groups through conflict, that could result in a runaway effect.” […] “One of the more interesting findings was that in some cases we found the effect endures,” Henrich said. “In Tajikistan we find the effect even 13 years post-conflict, and there’s no sense in which it declines.”
By Peter Breggin, MD In an internet email discussion among a large group of supposedly enlightened mental health professionals, few came forward to outright condemn or ban ECT. One participant responded to my comments with, “It worries me how this debate gets so polarized. I appreciate Peter’s opposition to ECT. But that doesn’t mean ECT has not ‘helped people’ even though it might be a placebo effect.” Another declared it was “fashionable” to criticize ECT, but all treatments had their pros and cons. Most seemed to agree that “it sometimes works.” This refusal to say or to accept something polarizing is a hallmark of most so-called reformers in the field of mental health. What about lobotomy—most of which my 1970s campaign stopped? What about insulin coma therapy? The spinning chair? What about freezing baths? What about the bleeding and purgatives? What about all the other atrocities committed by psychiatry on helpless “patients”? Should we never have simply said, “Stop!”?
Concurrently, federal, state, and municipal governments launched a series of aggressive “mental health” education campaigns across the country to better educate front-line providers and families. The campaigns were bolstered by an endless stream of magazine, radio, and television ads sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry claiming that the early symptoms of mental illnesses could be detected in children as young as two and successfully treated with psychiatric drugs. Unlike other direct-to-consumer drug ads, these failed to mention any side effects or risks to the developing brains and bodies of children and adolescents. Soon, doctors began working hand in hand with educators to identify, label, and medicate any child who might be inattentive, different, bored, too slow, poor, anxious, argumentative, defiant, or acting out. Supposedly, according to biological psychiatrist Stan Kutcher, medication could “fix various brain circuits that are not working the way they should be”—despite a lack of evidence that any childhood behaviors are due to faulty brains. The result: Schools, under the direction of government ministries, have been transformed into hubs for the diagnosis of mental illnesses. According to this industry, no child is considered too young for scrutiny. And so, the drugging continues.
It’s generally considered common sense that the typical teenager has a different set of emotional sensitivities than a middle-aged or older person. As we age, we get less angsty, certainly. But do we actually get happier? This is one question that was examined in a groundbreaking new study recently published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, which is one of the largest studies of its kind to examine how people of all ages detect subtle changes in social cues, and to measure how our emotional sensitivity intensifies or wanes as we get older, reports MedicalXpress.com. […] “It’s well established that there is an age-related decline in the ability to decode emotion cues, in general, but here we see very little decline in the ability to detect differences in happiness. What’s remarkable is that we see declines in many visual perceptual abilities as we get older, but here we did not see such declines in the perception of happiness,” she said. “These findings fit well with other research showing that older adults tend to have more positive emotions and a positive outlook.”
As little as 10 minutes of regular exercise can help alleviate depression. But even professionals don’t always make the link between mental and physical health. […] A recent study published in the JAMA Psychiatry journal supported the theory that physical activity is an effective prevention strategy for depression. (Although it adds that “physical activity may protect against depression, and/or depression may result in decreased physical activity”.) The link between exercise and mental health is not new – in 1769, the Scottish physician William Buchan wrote that “of all the causes which conspire to render the life of man short and miserable, none have greater influence than the want of proper exercise” – but it is becoming more widely understood, says Dr Brendon Stubbs, head of physiotherapy at the South London and Maudsley NHS foundation trust. […] “For a long time, there has been a good deal of ignorance about the voluminous catalogue of mental benefits that different kinds of exercise can provide. People are slowly becoming more aware of these benefits, as barely a week goes by without some new trial or study being published that connects certain kinds of physical activity with mental wellbeing, but there is still some way to go with persuading people that moving outdoors is something of a miracle cure for many modern ills.”
Drugs designed to calm mental health symptoms could be making them worse, a study says. Nearly a quarter of people with bipolar disorder in Scotland are misprescribed antidepressants, which can bring on mania in people with the condition, a study revealed in the Thursday issue of the British Journal of Psychiatry. […] “Specifically, we found that there was a gradual decline in the prescribing of lithium (the best for bipolar disorder) and a pattern of consistently high prescribing of antidepressants on their own. For many patients, the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder runs the risk of making the long-term course of the illness worse, rather than better.” During the time of the study, antidepressant use remained steady, while antipsychotic and anticonvulsant drug prescriptions increased. This is important because these drugs can cause mood destabilization and possibly mania.
Dr. Breggin on Prozac and Direct-to-Consumer Advertising
Do you find yourself looking forward to your nightly glass (or glasses) of wine a bit too much? Do you struggle with late-night trips to the 7-11 for junk food? Are you dabbling in illicit drug use? Or becoming obsessed with checking your smartphone? Are you loathe to call your habit an addiction? Okay, maybe it’s easier to call it a strong attachment, but regardless of the semantics (for the purposes of this post, we’ll go with the term “addiction”), it’s unsettling to feel as if you’ve gotten locked into a pattern which feels a bit out of your control and which may be taking you down a dangerous path, either slowly or quickly. There are numerous ways to treat addiction, but one crucial skill is to increase our ability to tolerate life as it is, rather than how we would prefer it to be. How can the practice of mindfulness help with this? […] Some reasons why mindfulness can help problems with addiction include:
Clinical trials are not enough to prove any drug is safe and effective – especially one that could be as widely used as Johnson & Johnson’s depression drug esketamine, a slightly altered form of the street drug ketamine. The FDA approval process is a balancing act, weighing safety and efficacy testing against the need to get potentially life-saving drugs out as soon as possible. An advisory panel to the FDA decided this month that the benefits outweigh the risks, and approval is expected soon. But scientists who study depression say there’s a lot more to learn about esketamine’s long-term effects. While best known as a recreational drug, ketamine has been used since the 1970s as an anesthetic, in doses much higher than what’s likely to be given to depression patients. The trials so far seem to show that the drug is not highly addictive, according to a story in the medical website STAT. But time will tell.
Until recently, the term mindfulness meditation was largely unknown. Now, however, it’s in vogue in North America. But while many have heard the term, or given it a whirl, this ancient tradition is still largely misunderstood. While I am no master myself, I have spent the last three years (which is infancy for a meditation practice) learning about the skills of developing a mindfulness practice. I have followed the research to find the empirical evidence of the benefits, which are numerous to every population: veterans, the terminally ill, those suffering anxiety or depression. But it also holds tremendous value to parents and the unique stress of raising children.
Today’s hour is the deepest I have gone in talking about empathy as an intentional listening to, acceptance and understanding of another person. It is open mic Wednesday, which is always the last Wednesday of the month, and I began the hour by focusing on empathy and so did my callers. If you want to understand how to find friends, to start relationships, and to make them grow, this is the hour for you. In response to a lonely caller, I talk about all that she, or anyone, needs to do to quickly begin finding people who want meaningful, caring and even loving relationships. Then I explain how the same empathic approaches and attitudes can change your life for the better, along with lives of almost everyone you know. Find out what it means to experience “empathic self-transformation”-it could change your life. The Dr. Peter Breggin Hour is every Wednesday at 4 pm NY Time on www.prn.fm. Call in live to be on the show any Wednesday at 888 874 4888 or go to the archive on www.breggin.com.
We live in a time that seems increasingly close-minded and divisive—a world coming apart. However, if you look at religion (one of the most outwardly divisive forces of all) from inside the brain, the results can help you see the world from a very different perspective. A recent brain-imaging study at Yale University called “Neural Correlates of Spiritual Experiences” shows that the brain reacts in very similar ways to our diverse spiritual experiences—regardless of tradition, race, creed, or gender. […] Spiritual experiences often involve losing touch with space and time and having an expanded “sense of self,” the researchers explain. Decreased activity in the parietal lobe may suggest that, during their spiritual experience, the participants momentarily lost some of their sense of self as they connected with something greater. “Taken together,” the researchers conclude, “the present finding suggests that spiritual experiences may involve a perceived encounter with a spacious ‘presence’ or entity external to oneself.” The way that we experience spirituality may look different on the outside but is actually very similar on the inside. At the root of most religions and philosophies is a focus on oneness and compassion. Research shows that having a sense of oneness with others (even strangers) or with nature and animals also begets greater feelings of kindness and compassion. Scientific studies like these, however, could help bridge the divide that exists between religious traditions. Given that the effect of religious or spiritual practices are more similar than dissimilar, a greater sense of belongingness seems in order.
Why do we become more positive as we grow older? Why are adolescents so sensitive to negative social cues? […] These are a few of the questions addressed in “Emotion Sensitivity Across the Lifespan: Mapping Clinical Risk Periods to Sensitivity to Facial Emotion Intensity” […] “We found that sensitivity to anger cues improves dramatically during early to mid-adolescence,” said Rutter. “This is the exact age when young people are most attuned to forms of social threat, such as bullying. The normal development of anger sensitivity can contribute to some of the challenges that arise during this phase of development.” On the other end of the life span, the study showed that sensitivity to facial cues for fear and anger decrease as people age, but the ability to detect happiness cues stays the same. “It’s well established that there is an age-related decline in the ability to decode emotion cues, in general, but here we see very little decline in the ability to detect differences in happiness,” Germine said. This is even though the study was designed to be sensitive to differences in happiness sensitivity with age, based on principles from psychometrics and signal detection theory. “What’s remarkable is that we see declines in many visual perceptual abilities as we get older, but here we did not see such declines in the perception of happiness,” she said. “These findings fit well with other research showing that older adults tend to have more positive emotions and a positive outlook.”
Earlier this month, England announced they will begin teaching mindfulness in up to 370 schools nationwide. Damian Hinds, the British secretary of education, said: “Children will start to be introduced gradually to issues around mental health, well-being, and happiness right from the start of primary school.” This is intended to combat the rise in anxiety, depression and other mental-emotional challenges in British youth per a recent National Health Survey. While not too far away, the government in New Delhi, India launched a “Happiness Curriculum” last July, which starts with mindfulness exercises every morning in the classroom. Are we in the average American classroom missing the mindfulness boat? […] Mindfulness is a fancy word for paying attention without judgment to what’s happening either inside of you (for example, your thoughts and bodily sensations) or in the outer world. Research shows that students who practice mindfulness exercises often improve their attention, grades, behavior, mood and ability to self-regulate. Said differently, mindfulness can help our students slow down and ultimately make smart choices even when emotionally triggered. […] But to answer my earlier question: No, I don’t think America has missed the mindfulness boat, but we certainly need to do some paddling to keep up.
The Minds of Men Interview Part 5: Fate Stops Psychosurgeon From Mutilating More Victims
Interview V of VIII. After losing courtroom battles, a surprising turn ultimately stops Harvard psychosurgeon H. T. Ballentine from mutilating any more patients. When Dr. Breggin started his successful international campaign to stop psychosurgery in the early 1970s, he never imagined the mind-control aspirations and racist motivations espoused by key neurosurgeons and psychiatrists.
In a series of three experiments, a team of psychologists from Lancaster University, the University of Central Lancashire and the University of Gävle investigated the impact of background music on creativity. Their findings challenge the popular view that music enhances creativity, and instead demonstrate that music, regardless of the presence of semantic content (no lyrics, familiar lyrics, or unfamiliar lyrics), disrupts creative performance in insight problem solving. […] “Background music is an environmental stimulus known to influence cognitive performance, which has also been claimed to enhance people’s creativity for tasks involving spatial abilities such as drawing. [… However…] They found that background music ‘significantly impaired’ people’s ability to complete tasks testing verbal creativity — but there was no effect for background library noise. For example, a participant was shown three words (e.g., dress, dial, flower), with the requirement being to find a single associated word (in this case ‘sun’) that can be combined to make a common word or phrase (i.e., sundress, sundial and sunflower). “We found strong evidence of impaired performance when playing background music in comparison to quiet background conditions,” said study co-author Dr. Neil McLatchie, a researcher at Lancaster University.
Using notes made by the attending healthcare professionals about psychiatric patients enables impending coercive measures to be predicted in advance — potentially even through automated text analysis. When psychiatric patients pose a danger to themselves or others, the use of coercion is sometimes unavoidable. Measures such as relocation to an isolation room or forced medication are regarded as a last resort, however: they are kept to a minimum and their use is strictly regulated. […] The results showed that the case notes before seclusion were more extensive, meaning they contained a significantly higher number of words. “It seems that the attending staff describe problematic behavior more comprehensively in order to improve information transfer between different shifts, justify upcoming coercive measures and ensure that they are legally protected,” says Dr. Clara Stepanow, author of the study. […] “Our study demonstrates previously little-used factors that could be helpful in improving risk evaluation,” says study leader and psychiatrist Dr. Christian Huber. “If the subjective perception of healthcare professionals can be integrated properly into electronic documentation practice, automated text analysis could help in future to prevent coercive measures through timely intervention.”
Research has demonstrated that we can derive greater life satisfaction from spending our money strategically. If you’re fortunate enough to be a high-earning physician, here are some research-backed ways you can put your riches to work enriching your life. Buy Time A recent Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesstudy showed that adults […] reported that using money to buy time gave them greater life satisfaction. […] So what should a doctor do to buy time? The study shows that doctors looking to improve their life satisfaction should purchase time-saving services that alleviate “end-of-day time pressure.” Hate cleaning your bathroom? Hire a cleaning service. […] Buy an experience A landmark 20-year study has shown that those who seek happiness should spend their money on experiences, not things. The study looked at groups across demographics, and participants said that purchases made with the intention of having a life experience yielded more happiness than material goods. […] Buy something for someone else From a happiness perspective, it’s truly better to give than receive. That’s a scientifically proven fact. A study published in Science indicated that those who spend money on others had a more positive impact on happiness than those who spent on themselves. The study looked at a demographically representative group of about 600 Americans and used statistical analysis to show no correlation between personal spending and happiness, whereas “higher prosocial spending was associated with significantly greater happiness.”
A psychotherapy training film 5 parts, 4 hours (on DVD)
With his genuine and profoundly engaging style of psychotherapy, Dr. Breggin shows how to relate to patients and clients in a manner that engenders trust, mutual understanding and the opportunity for recovery and growth.
Most psychiatric drugs can cause withdrawal reactions, including life-threatening emotional and physical reactions. So it is not only dangerous to start psychiatric drugs, it can also be dangerous to stop them.