SSRIs and other antidepressants
Prozac®, Zoloft®, Paxil®, Luvox®, Celexa®, Effexor®, Wellbutrin®, and other antidepressants.

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file icon Rational Principles of Psychopharmacology 04/09/2016

Breggin, PR. (2016). Rational Principles of Psychopharmacology for Therapists, Healthcare Providers and Clients. J Contemp Psychother 46:1–13.

Because the epidemic dispensing of psychiatric drugs is based on misinformation, it is important for all health professionals, consumers, and most citizens (including patients and their family members) to have a more rational understanding of how psychiatric drugs actually “work.” Instead of enforcing authoritarian “medication compliance” in obedience to the prescriber’s orders, informed therapists and healthcare providers have an ethical duty to provide scientific information about the real effects of psychiatric drugs. Instead of naively accepting whatever the doctor prescribes to them, consumers need to educate themselves about all medications, but especially about psychiatric ones, which are consistently misrepresented and oversold.

file icon Psychiatric drug-induced Chronic Brain Impairment (CBI) 01/27/2012
Psychiatric drug-induced Chronic Brain Impairment (CBI): Implications for longterm treatment with psychiatric medication. International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine, 23: 193-200.
Peter R. Breggin, MD
Abstract: Understanding the hazards associated with long-term exposure to psychiatric drugs is very important but rarely emphasized in the scientific literature and clinical practice. Drawing on the scientific literature and clinical experience, the author describes the syndrome of Chronic Brain Impairment (CBM) which can be caused by any trauma to the brain including Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and long-term exposure to psychiatric medications. Knowledge of the syndrome should enable clinicians to more easily identify long-term adverse effects caused by psychiatric drugs while enabling researchers to approach the problem with a more comprehensive understanding of the common elements of brain injury as they are manifested after long-term exposure to psychiatric medications. Treatment options are also discussed.
file icon Antidepressant-Induced Suicide, Violence, and Mania: Risks for Military Personnel 02/11/2011

Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 12, Number 2, 2010.

Peter R. Breggin, MD

The newer antidepressants frequently cause suicide, violence, and manic-like symptoms of activation or overstimulation, presenting serious hazards to active-duty soldiers who carry weapons under stressful conditions. These antidepressant-induced symptoms of activation can mimic posttraumatic stress disorder and are likely to worsen this common disorder in soldiers, increasing the hazard when they are prescribed to military personnel. Antidepressants should not be prescribed to soldiers during or after deployment.

file icon Intoxication Anosognosia (Medication Spellbinding) 05/15/2008
"Intoxication Anosognosia: The Spellbinding Effect of Psychiatric Drugs", Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 8, 201-215, 2006.

ABSTRACT: Why do so many individuals persist in taking psychoactive substances, including psychiatric drugs, after adverse mental and behavioral effects have become severe and even disabling? The author has previously proposed the brain-disabling principle of psychiatric treatment that all somatic psychiatric treatments impair the function of the brain and mind. Intoxication anosognosia (medication spellbinding) is an expression of this druginduced mental disability. Intoxication anosognosia causes the victim to underestimate the degree of drug-induced mental impairment, to deny the harmful role that the drug plays in the person’s altered state, and in many cases compel the individual to mistakenly believe that he or she is functioning better. In the extreme, the individual displays out-of-character compulsively destructive behaviors, including violence toward self and others.

file icon Recent US, Canadian, and British regulatory agency actions concerning antidepressant-induced harm to 01/28/2007
"Recent US, Canadian and British regulatory agency actions concerning antidepressant-induced harm to self and others: a review and analysis," International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 16 (2004).
file icon Recent Regulatory Changes in Antidepressant Labels: Implicatons of Activation 01/28/2006
More focus is needed on the risk of activation or stimulation as described in the new class of warnings from the Food and Drug Administration, including anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia, hypomania, mania and other unusual changes of behavior, worsening of depression and suicidal ideation.
file icon Suicidality, violence and mania caused by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): A review 01/12/2005

Evidence from many sources confirm SSRIs commonly cause or exacerbate a wide range of abnormal mental and behavioral conditions. International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 16 (2003/2004) 31-49.

file icon Copy of Breggin's Paxil product liability report in the Lacuzong case 01/12/2004
Report filed with the court stating Dr. Breggin's belief that Paxil induced Reynaldo Lacuzong to commit murder.
file icon Court filing makes public my previously suppressed analysis of Paxil's effects 01/14/2003
Information on antidepressant-induced akathisia comes to light with court filing in Lacuzong case.
file icon How GlaxoSmithKline suppressed data on Paxil-induced akathisia 01/12/2002
Paxil Special Report II: Second special report in a series providing excerpts from Dr. Breggin's 1999 product liability report in the CA case of Lacuzong v. GlaxoSmithKline alleging that Paxil (paroxetine) caused a double murder and suicide. Ethical Psychology and Psychiatry 8 (2006) 91-100.
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Most psychiatric drugs can cause withdrawal reactions, sometimes including life-threatening emotional and physical withdrawal problems. In short, it is not only dangerous to start taking psychiatric drugs, it can also be dangerous to stop them. Withdrawal from psychiatric drugs should be done carefully under experienced clinical supervision. Methods for safely withdrawing from psychiatric drugs are discussed in Dr. Breggin's new book, Psychiatric Drug Withdrawal: A Guide for Prescribers, Therapists, Patients, and Their Families.