Stimulants and ADHD
Ritalin®, Concerta® Adderall®, amphetamines and other stimulant medications

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file icon A Misdiagnosis, Anywhere 10/13/2011

A Misdiagnosis, Anywhere. The New York Times, Oct 13, 2011.

The drugging of children for A.D.H.D. has become an epidemic. More than 5 million U.S. children, or 9.5 percent, were diagnosed with A.D.H.D. as of 2007. About 2.8 million had received a prescription for a stimulant medication in 2008. ...

file icon Confirming the hazards of stimulant drug treatment 03/13/2006
Examining the hazards of stimulant therapy (Ritalin and amphetamine) in children.
file icon Intoxication Anosognosia (Medication Spellbinding) 06/09/2008
"Intoxication Anosognosia: The Spellbinding Effect of Psychiatric Drugs", Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 8, 201-215, 2006.

ABSTRACT: Why do so many individuals persist in taking psychoactive substances, including psychiatric drugs, after adverse mental and behavioral effects have become severe and even disabling? The author has previously proposed the brain-disabling principle of psychiatric treatment that all somatic psychiatric treatments impair the function of the brain and mind. Intoxication anosognosia (medication spellbinding) is an expression of this druginduced mental disability. Intoxication anosognosia causes the victim to underestimate the degree of drug-induced mental impairment, to deny the harmful role that the drug plays in the person’s altered state, and in many cases compel the individual to mistakenly believe that he or she is functioning better. In the extreme, the individual displays out-of-character compulsively destructive behaviors, including violence toward self and others.

file icon NIH consensus report highlights controversy surrounding ADHD diagnosis and stimulant treatment 01/15/2005
"NIH Consensus Report Highlights Controversy Surrounding ADHD Diagnosis and Stimulant Treatment," Ethical Human Sciences and Services, Vol 1 No 1 (1999).
file icon Psychostimulants in the treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD 01/01/2008
"Psychostimulants in the treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD: Risks and mechanisms of action," International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 12 (1999).
file icon Rational Principles of Psychopharmacology 04/09/2016

Breggin, PR. (2016). Rational Principles of Psychopharmacology for Therapists, Healthcare Providers and Clients. J Contemp Psychother 46:1–13.

Because the epidemic dispensing of psychiatric drugs is based on misinformation, it is important for all health professionals, consumers, and most citizens (including patients and their family members) to have a more rational understanding of how psychiatric drugs actually “work.” Instead of enforcing authoritarian “medication compliance” in obedience to the prescriber’s orders, informed therapists and healthcare providers have an ethical duty to provide scientific information about the real effects of psychiatric drugs. Instead of naively accepting whatever the doctor prescribes to them, consumers need to educate themselves about all medications, but especially about psychiatric ones, which are consistently misrepresented and oversold.

file icon Risks and Mechanism of Action of Stimulants 11/16/1998
Risks and Mechanism of Action of Stimulants. NIH Consensus Development Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, November 16-18, 1998.
file icon Sedative-like effect of epinephrine 01/28/1970

"The Sedative-Like Effect of Epinephrine," Arch Gen Psych Vol 12 (1965).

Recent findings have created the need for a review of the literature concerning epinephrine-induced behavioral depression and for an evaluation of the possible mechanisms and clinical implications.

file icon The NIMH multimodal study of treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 04/29/2005

International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 13 (2000).

A careful review of the Multimodal Treatment Study for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (the 'MTA Study') reveals serious methodological flaws that undermine its scientific validity.

file icon The psychophysiology of anxiety 01/01/1964
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Most psychiatric drugs can cause withdrawal reactions, sometimes including life-threatening emotional and physical withdrawal problems. In short, it is not only dangerous to start taking psychiatric drugs, it can also be dangerous to stop them. Withdrawal from psychiatric drugs should be done carefully under experienced clinical supervision. Methods for safely withdrawing from psychiatric drugs are discussed in Dr. Breggin's new book, Psychiatric Drug Withdrawal: A Guide for Prescribers, Therapists, Patients, and Their Families.